There are several types of mistreatment that employees endure in organizations including abusive supervision, bullying, incivility, and sexual harassment.
Main article: Abusive supervision
Abusive supervision is the extent to which a supervisor engages in a pattern of behavior that harms subordinates.
Main article: Workplace bullying
Although definitions of workplace bullying vary, it involves a repeated pattern of harmful behaviors directed towards an individual. In order for a behavior to be termed bullying, the individual or individuals doing the harm have to have either singly or jointly more power than the victim.
Some leadership approaches and theories include:
Contingency theory says that good leadership depends on characteristics of the leader and the situation.
Leader-member exchange theory or LMX focus on relationships between individual supervisor-subordinate pairs.
Ohio State Leadership Studies identified the dimensions of consideration (showing concern and respect for subordinates) and initiating structure (assigning tasks and setting performance goals).
Path-goal theory is a contingency theory linking appropriate leader style to organizational conditions, and subordinate personality.
Transformational leadership theory concerns the behaviors leaders do that inspire followers to high levels of motivation and performance. Related to charismatic leadership that is part of transformational.
Main article: Mintzberg's managerial roles
In the late 1960s Henry Mintzberg, a graduate student at MIT, carefully studied the activities of five executives. On the basis of his observations, Mintzberg arrived at three categories that subsume managerial roles: interpersonal roles; decisional roles; and informational roles.
Main article: Motivation
Baron and Greenberg (2008) wrote that motivation involves "the set of processes that arouse, direct, and maintain human behavior toward attaining some goal."
There are several different theories of motivation relevant to OB.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs
Organizational Justice theory
Frederick Herzberg's two-factor theory
Theory X and Theory Y
National culture is thought to affect the behavior of individuals in organizations. This idea is exemplified by Hofstede's cultural dimensions theory. Hofstede surveyed a large number of cultures and identified six dimensions of national cultures that influence the behavior of...