Cardiovascular disease also called heart disease includes numerous problems, many of which are related to a process called atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is a condition that develops when a substance called plaque builds up in the walls of the arteries. This buildup narrows the arteries, making it harder for blood to flow through. If a blood clot forms, it can stop the blood flow. This can cause a heart attack or stroke (“What is Cardiovascular Disease (Heart Disease)?”). The purpose of this paper is to discuss the risk factors associated with a previous client that I cared for in the clinical setting and to include rationale and some behaviors that could reduce these risks. The patient ...view middle of the document...
Diabetes is life-long and is considered a modifiable risk factor however family history is not. Lifestyle changes that she should focus on to reduce the risk factors for CVD associated with diabetes are smoking cessation, diet, exercise, blood pressure control, maintenance of lipid therapy and insulin medication.
The client also has a history of hypertension which is a contributing factor to CVD. During my morning assessment her blood pressure was 154/100 and she discussed that it has been in that range for years. Hypertension is a risk factor for coronary heart disease and the single most important risk factor for stroke. It causes roughly 50% of ischaemic strokes and increases the risk of hemorrhagic stroke. Hypertension stresses your body’s blood vessels, causing them to clog or weaken. Hypertension can lead to atherosclerosis and narrowing of the blood vessels making them or likely to block clots or bits of fatty material breaking off from the lining of the blood vessel wall. Damage to the arteries can also create weak places that places that rupture easily or thin spots that balloon out the artery wall resulting in an aneurism (“Cardiovascular disease risk factors – Hypertension / World Heart Federation”). Ways that the client could reduce and control her high blood pressure include self-interventions such as losing weight, exercise, eating a healthier and low sodium diet, limiting alcohol intake, and smoking cessation.
I.G. has been a smoker for the past 30 years although claims that she has cut down considerably since being diagnosed with diabetes and congestive heart failure. As many as 30% of all coronary heart disease deaths in the United States each year are attributable to cigarette smoking, with the risk being strongly dose-related. Smoking also nearly doubles the risk of ischemic stroke. Smoking acts synergistically with other risk factors, substantially increasing the risk of CHD. Smokers are also at increased risk for peripheral vascular disease, cancer, chronic lung disease, and many other chronic diseases. Cigarette smoking is the single most alterable risk factor contributing to premature morbidity and mortality in the United States, accounting for approximately 430 000 deaths annually (“Cigarette Smoking, Cardiovascular Disease, and Stroke”) Obviously the best way for her to reduce this risk of CVD is through smoking cessation. According to the AHA, eliminating smoking not only reduces the risk for coronary heart disease, but also reduces the risk for repeat heart attacks and death by heart disease by half. Research also indicates that smoking cessation is crucial in the management of many contributors to heart attack, including atherosclerosis, thrombosis, coronary artery disease, and cardiac arrhythmias (“Smoking and Cardiovascular Disease / John Hopkins Medicine Health Library”).
As previously discussed the client’s BMI is 32.1 which pretty much sums...