Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an abnormal functioning of the heart or blood vessels. Heart disease (HD) is a general term for a variety of heart conditions. The most common form of HD is coronary heart disease (CHD), also called coronary artery disease (CAD) because it involves the coronary arteries. Other types of CVD include hypertension, congestive heart failure, stroke, congenital cardiovascular defects, hardening or narrowing (atherosclerosis) of the blood vessels, including the coronary arties, and other diseases of the circulatory system. The majority of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is caused by risk factors that can be controlled, treated or modified, such ...view middle of the document...
2) Tobacco Use
* Smoking is estimated to cause nearly 10 percent of all CVD.
* The risk of developing CVD is higher in female smokers, young men, and heavy smokers.
* There are currently about 1 billion smokers in the world today.
* Within two years of quitting, the risk of coronary heart disease is substantially reduced, and within 15 years the risk of CVD returns to that of a non-smoker.
3) Raised blood glucose (diabetes)
* Diabetes is defined as having a fasting plasma glucose value of 7.0 mmol/l (126 mg/dl) or higher.
* In 2008, diabetes was responsible for 1.3 million deaths globally.
* CVD accounts for about 60 percent of all mortality in people with diabetes.
* In some age groups, people with diabetes have a two-fold increase in the risk of stroke.
* Patients with diabetes also have a poorer prognosis after cardiovascular events compared to people without diabetes.
* Cardiovascular risk increases with raised glucose values.
* Lack of early detection and care for diabetes results in severe complications, including heart attacks, strokes, renal failure, amputations and blindness.
* Primary care access to measurement of blood glucose and cardiovascular risk assessment as well as essential medicines including insulin can improve health outcomes of people with diabetes.
4) Physical inactivity
* Insufficient physical activity can be defined as less than five times 30 minutes of moderate activity per week, or less than three times 20 minutes of vigorous activity per week, or equivalent.
* Insufficient physical activity is the fourth leading risk factor for mortality.
* Approximately 3.2 million deaths and 32.1 million DALYs† – representing about 2.1 percent of global DALYs – each year are attributable to insufficient physical activity.
* People who are insufficiently physically active have a 20 to 30 percent increased risk of all-cause mortality compared to those who engage in at least 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity most days of the week.
* The prevalence of insufficient physical activity is higher in high-income countries compared to low-income countries due to increased automation of work and use of vehicles for transport in high-income countries.
* High-income countries have more than double the prevalence of insufficient physical activity compared to low-income countries for both men and women.
5) Unhealthy diet
* High dietary intakes of saturated fat, trans-fats and salt and low intake of fruits, vegetables and fish are linked to cardiovascular risk.
* Approximately 16 million (1.0 percent) DALYs and 1.7 million (2.8 percent) of deaths worldwide are attributable to low fruit and vegetable consumption.
* The amount of dietary salt consumed is an important determinant of blood pressure levels and overall cardiovascular risk and the WHO recommends a population salt intake of less than 5 grams/person/day to help...