The World Health Organization predicts that deaths due to cardiovascular disease (CVD) will increase around the globe from 17 million in 2008 to 25 million in 2030, (WHO,2012). CVDs are defined as all diseases of the circulatory system, including those of congenital origin, (AHA, 2010). Due to their high prevalence, CVDs impose a high social and financial burden on individuals, families and healthcare systems around the world.
Surgical procedures like coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), balloon angioplasty, and valve repair and replacement are integral to the treatment of CVD, (WHO, 2013).
Although these surgical procedures often improve survival rates, ...view middle of the document...
Risk Factors for CAD –
The majority of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is caused by risk factors that can be controlled, treated or modified, such as high blood pressure, cholesterol, overweight/obesity, tobacco use, lack of physical activity and diabetes, (World Heart Federaition,2015).
The negative effects of these risk factors and modification will be discussed with the patients. E.g.
* High blood pressure – controlling blood pressure, with prescribed medication and limited dietary intake of sodium.
* Cholesterol – dietary intake and physical activity, limiting intake of saturated fats.
* Overweight/obesity – strategies to lower weight, e.g. walking, swimming
* Tobacco use – options to cease smoking and coping with withdrawal symptoms
* Lack of physical activity – risks associated with increased blood pressure and benefits of exercise.
* Diabetes – poorly controlled blood glucose levels and association with atherosclerosis.
The next step in the process will be behaviour modification through increased physical activity
Exercise is a major component for patients with CAD. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) usually beginning during hospitalization (phase I, inpatient), followed by a supervised outpatient program lasting 3-6 months (phase II), and continuing in a lifetime maintenance stage in minimally supervised or unsupervised setting (phase III) (Ching. L. 2012). According to the recommendations of American College of Sports Medicine, patients with CABG should perform aerobic exercise 3-5 times per week and 20-60 minutes for each session, at the intensity of 40-80% of VO2peak. Strength training is suggested to perform 2-3 times per week at the intensity of 40-50 % of maximal voluntary contraction with 10-15 repetitions (ACSM, 2010).
Based on the above recommendations exercise promotion will be facilitated in the following settings.
Exercises for CABG patients – Cardiac walking programme. This programme is initiated in the hospital and administered by hospital staff with the intention of increasing circulation. The patients will be encouraged to adhere to this programme once discharged. Patients to increase intensity as prescribed by health care professional.
Cardiac rehabilitation programme
Participation in an ongoing cardiac rehabilitation programme or community cardiac exercise rehabilitation programme will be encouraged.
Patients will be trained to take their own pulse rates as they will be required to exercise within the heart rate range as prescribed by their physicians. This will be encouraged to be performed as a lifelong activity, with the intention of improving survival and general health. The cardiac rehabilitation programme will be administered by health care professionals, such as a biokineticist or physiotherapist.
Regular Monitoring or evaluation
Regular blood pressure, blood – glucose level and lipid profile monitoring will be encouraged. The patient will be...