Cancer is a generic term to describe a group of diseases which came in form of uncontrolled proliferation of cells. There are over 200 different types of cancer have been recognized, each of which acquires its name uniquely according to the type of issue the cell originates in. Many cancer victims succumb to cancer not because of the primary tumor, but the systematic effects of metastases on other regions away from the affected site. Therefore many treatment and research aim to prevent the metastatic process at the early period. There are currently many therapies in clinical use, and many advanced technologies that help to achieve better result and nanotechnology is the potential ...view middle of the document...
They cause many complication and sometimes, destructive outcomes to the neighboring cells.
Another problem was the conventional drug intake during the chemotherapy has shown the insufficient amount of drugs was delivered to the tumor site, and it was difficult to administer the drugs during clinical use. This is one reason that has been addressed many times by different researchers of how to create method to deliver the drug molecules at high dose to the tumor site at maximum efficiency while keeping the harmful effects to normal cells at minimum. And the advancement in biological chemistry introduced many nano-materials such as quantum dot, CNTs and dendrimers to aids the therapies in term of drug delivery, diagnosis and imaging. Among these new nano-technologies, CNTs have gained the most attention due to its unique properties which in many ways greatly contributed to bringing biomedical applications to a very promising future.
CNTs are essentially cylindrical shaped molecules made of carbon atoms. These carbon tubes were formed by rolling a graphene sheets into a seamless cylindrical shape with open ends. Then cylinders spliced into many small fragments with diameter ranging from 1 to 100 nm and couple micrometer in length. Since raw CNTs are not soluble, rendering these molecules with functional organic groups were strictly essential for biomedical applications. Due to the uniquely large surface area, CNTs are capable of absorbing and conjugating with a variety of therapeutic molecules present in chemotherapy. In this research article, CNTs were surfaced engineered to enhance the ability to bind to the desired therapeutic material or target cells need to be treated.
Overview of CNTs
CNTs are hollow, carbon made nano-matericals with a range of properties. Some of these are high aspect ratio, high surface area, and ultralight weight. CNTs are typically classified as single-walled carbon-nanotubes (SWCNT) or multi-walled carbon-nanotubes (MWCNT). [Figure 1] shows the physical difference in structure between SWCNT and MWCNT. SWCNTs consist of a single cylindrical carbon later with a diameter in the range of 0.4 -2 nm, the size depends on that temperature at which they have been synthesized. At higher temperature, larger diameter in CNTs was observed. In MWCNTs have diameters ranging from 1 – 3 nm for the inner layer and 2 – 100 nm for the outer layer.
The method of attaching the biological molecules to CNTs can vary as I will explain shortly. Drugs molecules can either attach to the surface through functional group binding or be loaded into the CNTs to increase their dispersibility in aqueous solution.