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Canons Of Taxation Essay

1617 words - 7 pages

Introduction
The vision of Auckland is to pertain the title of “World’s most liveable city”. The region’s population will continue to grow and expected to reach 2.2 to 2.5 million. A larger population will also generate more businesses which will require more goods and services around Auckland. To face the strong population growth and achieve the goal, Auckland City Council has proposed an integrated package of major transport projects over the next 30 years. These projects require additional funding of $10-$15 billion dollars. The existing funding sources are already committed therefore alternative source of funding needs to be found. Council has come up with various options which can ...view middle of the document...

In terms of the efficiency, tolling can be expensive as it requires billing, cash system and effective technology so that collection costs should not be relatively high to the amount collected. Also it requires high costs of maintenance. Currently, New Zealand only has one Northern gateway toll road, and figures shows that 96% people who used the road paid their tolls on time. On the other hand, there is a cost involved to recover the debt of 4% people who did not pay. At the same it can be efficient because it captures huge numbers of vehicles across the whole network, allowing costs to be spread. Increasing the cost of personal vehicle use will also decrease congestion to some extent. Toll may not be highly equitable as they are regressive tax and they may not be enough efficient as they will be expensive and have a high of maintenance.

Another option to fund the future transport projects of Auckland can be Taxes- airport departure tax or visitor taxes. In Europe and Denmark, time has witnessed increased in tourism taxing. Governments are looking at tourists as a new source of revenue. These taxes are the political advantage of shifting the tax burden to non-residents. Hence, if this will be chosen then Auckland transport projects will be funded by approximately 3.3 million departures annually. On the basis of equity, visitors will take advantage of those new projects for which they will pay departure tax. Are visitors the only people who will be using these new projects? These new projects will mostly be used by Aucklanders but the burden will be held on the shoulders of visitors. Although, as per the Auckland city council plans, the departure taxes or visitor taxes will be set sufficiently low and will not have any significant change in visitor numbers. This tax is highly efficient as there is an existing levy on departing passengers and additional taxes can be added which will be relatively straightforward. Research conducted in USA, Mexico and may other countries has shown departure tax as one of the monetary barrier to travel. Similarly, visitor tax can be applied to the commercial accommodation easily but it will be important to make sure that accommodation businesses do not suffer because of this extra tax which will included in the accommodation costs.

General rates are also one of the options to find the Auckland city’s transport projects. Currently, they are used to fund council activities; available to all and benefit all regions. These rates will be paid based on the valuation of the property (e.g. residential, commercial, farms) and charges different rates per dollar of the property value. It is important to consider that it gets progressively structured so that lower income earners should not bear the burden as higher income earners. This can be aligned by assessing the ability to pay or exempting the lower sit value from it. Currently, Council has option for tax payers to pay in four instalments. And they can apply...

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