Cancer and the Body
Lincoln Technical Institute
Cancer is one of the leading causes of death in the world today. Studies show that one in three people will suffer from some form of cancer in their lifetime. There are many different kinds of cancer that effect different parts of the body. Cancer is treated in various different ways. Some forms of cancer are curable and some are not, but with the continued research we can hope to someday find a cure.
Cancer and the Body
Cancer is a class of diseases characterized by out-of-control cell growth. There are over one hundred different types of cancer, and each is classified by the type of cell that is initially ...view middle of the document...
Progression, or accelerated growth ratio, causes enhanced invasiveness, alters appearance and changes biochemical activity. The effect that is has is tumor development, which causes cells to mutate so that they are not all identical and have differing sensitivities to treatment.
Metastasis is the process in which a tumor develops in internal blood vessels. Tumor cells extend into normal tissue by producing enzymes that dissolve substances that hold normal cells together. The tumor then penetrates capillaries and other structures and cavities within the body. The tumor cells are then transported through the body, but most are destroyed by the body’s defenses. The remaining tumor cells are trapped in capillary beds and form a fibrin meshwork that prevents detection by the immune system. Enzymes dissolve the lining of the blood vessels and cells invade the surrounding tissue. Cells attempt to establish blood supply to support the development of metastatic colony, and from there transformed cells relocate by direct extension, invasion and establishment of remote sites.
Benign tumors are relatively harmless, because they do not spread to other parts of the body. This type of tumor presents problems if they put pressure on or obstruct blood flow to and from other organs or blood vessels. Benign tumors usually have a slow growth rate. When they begin to grow, they are large and expand. These cells closely resemble those of the tissue of origin. After removal, recurrence of these tumors is highly unlikely and they have no metastasis. There is no tissue destruction, unless compression or obstruction occurs.
Oma, technically means a tumor is swelling. The word tumor is commonly used when referring to a malignant or benign neoplasm. Tumors are named according to the type of tissue from which they originally developed.
The TNM system is one of the most widely used staging systems. It is based on the extent of the tumor (T), the extent of the spread to the lymph nodes (N), and the presence of distant metastasis (M). A number is added to each letter to indicate the size or extent of the primary tumor and the extent of the cancer spread. For example, breast cancer classified as T3 N2 M0 refers to a large tumor that has spread outside the breast to nearby lymph nodes, but not to other parts of the body. Prostate cancer T2 N0 M0 indicates the tumor is located only in the prostate and has not spread to the lymph nodes or any other part of the body.
For many cancers, TNM combinations correspond to one of five stages. Criteria for stages differ for different types of cancer. In stage 0, oma’s are in situ. In stages I, II and III, higher numbers indicated more extensive disease: larger tumor size and/or spread of the cancer beyond the organ in which it first developed to nearby lymph nodes and organs adjacent to the location of the primary tumor. Stage IV indicates the cancer has spread to another organ.
Some risk factors of developing cancer are...