This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Calibration Essay

2400 words - 10 pages

This experiment will examine the concentrations of Zinc in several "samples." We will be using a Zinc lamp on the flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The lab assistant will demonstrate the software and the procedures for preparing the instrument.
Each group will run a series of calibration standards to generate a calibration curves. The concentrations are given below. Then, one of the "unknown" samples (A or B) should be run. The printer will generate a report of the concentration of Zinc in the sample. We have to be sure which sample we are used.
Our laboratory report should describe the functions of the AAS and describe the procedures for preparing the instrument for ...view middle of the document...

In this lab, the computer data system will draw the curve for you! Then samples can be tested and measured against this curve.
We describe the motion of macroscopic objects using Newton's laws of physics. We can easily measure velocity, acceleration, force, kinetic and potential energies as well as quantify gravitational effects. However, when we look at atomic particles (i.e., protons, electrons, neutrons, etc.), we can no longer describe motion and energy using Newtonian physics. The characteristics of atomic particles are described using the theorems of quantum mechanics.
Quantum mechanics--or quantum chemistry--describes the geometry of atoms and molecules in terms of complex mathematical expressions. It also describes the relative states of atomic matter. The atomic absorption spectrometer uses the principals of quantum chemistry to detect the presence of certain metals (i.e., iron, aluminium, copper, etc.) and determines the concentration of those metals in samples.
All atoms and their components have energy. The energy level at which an atom exists is referred to as its state. Under normal conditions, atoms exist in their most stable states. We refer to that most-stable level as the ground state. Al though we cannot measure the precise energy state for an atom, we can usually measure changes to its energy relative to its ground state.
Certain processes can change the energy state for an atom. For example, adding thermal energy (heat) can cause an atom to increase to a higher energy state. This change in energy is written as DE. We refer to energy states which are higher than the ground state as excited states. In theory, there are infinite excited states; however there are decreasing numbers of atoms from a population that reach higher excited states.
The laws of quantum mechanics tell us that atoms do not increase their energy levels gradually. An atom goes directly from one state to another without going through intermediates. We refer to these "quantum leaps" as transitions. The transition from the ground state (written as Eo) to the first excited state (E1) requires some form of energy input. This energy is absorbed by the atom. That energy absorption is equal to DE0® 1. When this energy absorption takes place in the presence of ultraviolet light, some of that light will be absorbed. This uv absorption occurs at a specific wavelength.
Each element in the periodic table will have a specific D E that will absorb a specific wavelength of uv light. The relationship between the energy transition and the wavelength (l) can be described by:
D E=h/ l
Where h is Planck's constant. Atomic absorption uses this relationship to determine the presence of a specific element based on absorption in a specific wavelength. For example, calcium absorbs light with a wavelength of 422.7 nm. Iron absorbs light at 248.3 nm.

Volumetric flasks, Pipette and Atomic Absorption Spectrometer
Zinc Sulphate, Deionised water and Water...

Other Papers Like Calibration

Spychology Essay

3207 words - 13 pages muscle using singlebarrelled Mg-sensitive micro-electrodes. The electrodes were calibrated in solutions containing the [K]i and [Na]i measured in this tissue. In thirteen measurements from seven experiments conforming to strict criteria for calibration and penetration the estimated mean [Mg]i was 04 mmol/l. This is to be regarded as an upper limit since it was estimated by linear extrapolation of the calibration curve. INTRODUCTION Ionized Mg

Extraction Of Light Essay

552 words - 3 pages (Carry 50) and curves of calibration (TiO2-Eu(TTA)3 layer thickness) will be showed as flowing which are open for discussion. Hope this meeting will assess the work finished so far and give a clear direction for the further steps. II. DBRs The optical measurement of these mirrors is operated on Carry 50 and the corresponding simulation is carried out on Matlab (Reticolo). a. b. c. Figures a, b, c are DBRs of wavelengths 375nm, 620nm and

Diprotic Acids

2207 words - 9 pages through the ¼, ½, ¾ equivalence points using the Henderson-Hasselbach Equation. Laboratory techniques such as weighing by difference, use of indicator, manual titrations, Vernier Lab Pro interface, automatic titrations, volumetric pipetting, volume-drop counter calibration, pH calibration, and dilutions were employed. Determination of the weak acid yielded a molar mass of [pic] with a percent yield of[pic] and a pKa of [pic] with a percent yield of[pic


2634 words - 11 pages EXPERIMENT 11 UV/VIS Spectroscopy and Spectrophotometry: Spectrophotometric Analysis of Potassium Permanganate Solutions. Outcomes After completing this experiment, the student should be able to: 1. 2. 3. 4. Prepare standard solutions of potassium permanganate. Construct calibration curve based on Beer’s Law. Use Beer’s Law to determine molar absorptivity. Explain the fundamental principal behind spectrophotometric analysis Introduction

The Greater NYC Blood Program

1424 words - 6 pages to accomplish. Precision Pharma wanted a multi-vessel weight controller located in the PLC cabinet to replace the wall of single vessel controllers they were currently using. Other problems arose with their current load cells. To keep the area clean, they rinse and sanitize the tanks and floors regularly, around the clock. Glenn Musano, Team Leader-Metrology and Mike Underhill, Sr. Calibration Technician, had run into problems with the shear


4913 words - 20 pages the probe underneath the membrane. Be sure that the O-ring holding the membrane to the probe fits securely. Allow the instrument to warm up for at least 15 minutes before taking the first reading of the day. Leave the instrument on between measurements. This will eliminate the need for warm-up periods between tests. Calibrate at least once per day. Distilled or deionized water, and not effluent, should be used for the probe calibration

Determination Of Copper By Complexation, Solvent–Extraction And Spectrophotometry

3364 words - 14 pages Determination of Copper by Complexation, Solvent-Extraction and SpectrophotometryAbstractTo determine the concentration of copper in an unknown solution by using copper complexation, solvent extraction and spectrophotometry. Standards are used to create a calibration curve and the unknown concentration of copper is then calculated by using the linear equation from the calibration curve. The concentration of copper in the unknown solution 201 was

Quality Management

1844 words - 8 pages systems in the organisation . The author will discuss the challenges that faced the organisation of setting up the two quality management system .Furthermore; it is going to choose a suitable system for coke and lewis laboratory. Back ground The company provides critical testing and calibration for the pharmaceutical and manufacturing industry in Europe and United Kingdom. It has good reputation because of its excellences equipments .However

Chem Lab Report

2692 words - 11 pages analyte in an unknown because the measure absorbances of standard solutions can be used to plot a calibration curve that can be used to determine the concentration of the metal in an unknown solution. Potentiometry is useful for determination of analyte when an ion sensitive electrode is used to find the amount of ion in standard solutions. Week 1: Introduction and Background The first test for calcium in the multivitamin was complexometric

Hydrogen Concentration Sensor Selection for the Renewable Energy Vehicle

2446 words - 10 pages selecting a sensor, it is important to consider the available sensing methods and the specific properties of the measurand, hydrogen. The selection process leading up to the purchase of two different hydrogen sensors from Neodym Technologies, is documented and finally the method of sensor calibration is outlined. 1 INTRODUCTION The University of Western Australia’s Renewable Energy Vehicle (REV) project aims to show the viability of using

Session 3 - Wal-Mart

1167 words - 5 pages fluid collected in the graduated cylinder during time interval Δt. 4 Theory The relationship between volumetric flow rate Q and kinematic viscosity ( for the viscometer is [pic] (1) where K is the calibration constant for the viscometer. Measurements of Q are taken at several temperatures. At one temperature, say Tref, the measured Q is used to determine K from [pic] (2) where νref is the value of the kinematic viscosity at

Related Essays

Cycle Time Reduction Essay

2104 words - 9 pages streamline manufacturing processes and cut production costs to effectively do business in an increasingly competitive world marketplace. Playing an important part in this effort to constantly improve productivity and quality throughout the organization, Six Sigma techniques have been put into effect, identifying problem areas and removing defects and process variations. Most Quality Assurance Departments, maintain a Calibration certification program in

Joel Hills Paper

2675 words - 11 pages .................................................................................................................................. 8 Wilson API Outputs ............................................................................................................................... 8 Station Calibration Test Limits and Configuration ..................................................................................... 9 Wilson API Inputs

Mineral Material Grinding Mill In Mining Industry

761 words - 4 pages Topics CoveredIntroductionApplication BackgroundSample PreparationInstrumentationMeasurement ProcedureAccurate Calibration ResultsPrecisionConclusionAbout PANalytical IntroductionThis data sheet shows that the Epsilon 3- a high-performance energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer is fully capable of analyzing Fe2O3, Al2O3, SiO2, SO3, P2O5, CaO, Mn3O4, MgO, and TiO2 in iron ore samples.Application BackgroundIron ore is mainly used as a

Determination Of Lead And Zinc Using Aas With Standard Additions

823 words - 4 pages AIM: To use atomic absorption spectrometry and a standard addition calibration to determine the concentration of lead and zinc in a solid bronze sample. INTRODUCTION: Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy is generally performed with external standardisation using a calibration curve of known concentration standards and using the equation of the linear trendline to determine the concentration of the unknown by rearranging the linear equation