1. Introductions and definitions:
This paper is an attempt of empirical investigation in conversational analysis with the focus on open-class repair in English Lingua Franca interactions. However, before the investigation goes any further it is important to highlight and define some key terminology that will be utilised for the means of this paper. According to Levinson (1983) “Conversation analysis (henceforward CA) is known as an approach to the study of natural conversation which covers both verbal and non- verbal interaction in everyday situations”. This notion was developed in 1960s by Harley Sacks when he was employed at “the Centre for the Scientific Study of Suicide in Los ...view middle of the document...
According to Schegloff et al., (1977 : 363) repair is “the mechanism through which certain troubles in interaction are dealt with”. Further classification of this paradigm is as follows:
1. Self-repair - when a speaker understands that he made a mistake and corrects him/herself.
2. Other-repair - when an interlocutor initiates repair by asking for clarification.
3. Self-initiated other repair – when a speaker is in a trouble of finding a proper word and a co-speaker or recipient fills in a word for him/her (this seems to have a connection with the concept of ‘conversational cooperation’ by Lumsden (2008) and ‘conversational duet’ discussed by Falk, 1980: 508).
4. Other-initiated other-repair – when a speaker provided wrong information and someone else corrects him/her.
Each of these dimensions are further divided into sub-sections (see Schegloff et al., 1977: 363) and without a doubt deep investigation and discussion of each of these phenomena would require great amount of time and effort, however, here we are going to focus on ‘open-class repair’ that falls into the category of other initiation of repair. This will be further discussed and expanded in the next section of this paper. This is well known topic in CA and much extensive research is done on this topic considering L1 speakers. However, not much research has been carried out to investigate the ‘open-class repair’ in L2 or English Lingua Franca (henceforth ELF) interactions (Firth, 1996: 239). Therefore, the initial aim of this paper is to take a deep inside into the topic of open-class repair in ELF interactions using CA approach and building a contrary argument to the concept knows as ‘let it pass’ (Firth, 1996) that will be discussed in the following section.
2. Literature Review
Dating back to the history of repair, Emanuel Schegloff and his companion Gail Jefferson and Harvey Sacks were one of the first researchers who started examining this conversational feature. In their paper named The Preference for Self-Correction in the Organisation of Repair in Conversation Schegloff et al., (1977) attempted to distinguish organisational repair into self-repair and other-repair (see previous section). It has been argued that repair occurrence initiation follows straight after the trouble source turn was initiated. Moreover, they have also acknowledged that in most cases participants try to fix the ‘trouble source’ by initiating self-repair, which way preferable in comparison with the other-repair. Finally, they conclude paper by justifying that “organisation of action/repair is the self-righting mechanism for the organisation of language use in social interaction” (ibid: 381) therefore a firm focus on the “error rather than repair” (Schegloff, 1978: 21) should be taken into the account.
Schegloff (1992) further investigated the role of repair and interchanegability in conversations with reference to previous theoretical contexts and...