Byzantine Institutions Essay

3417 words - 14 pages

Question: Explain the development and the nature of the Byzantine institutions (church and state), social and urban life, and cultural achievements?
Answer: Byzantine art is the term commonly used to describe the artistic products of the Eastern Roman Empire from about the 5th century until the fall of Constantinople in 1453. (The Roman Empire during this period is conventionally known as the Byzantine Empire.)
The term can also be used for the art of states which were contemporary with the Byzantine Empire and shared a common culture with it, without actually being part of it, such as Bulgaria, Serbia or Russia, and also Venice, which had close ties to the Byzantine Empire despite being ...view middle of the document...

Many smaller centers in the East were also far from insignificant, and as we proceed we will have cause to call attention to paintings and carvings in ivory which must have been produced in out-of-the-way places rather than in the great centers; they are naturally less sophisticated, but they nonetheless show the heritage of a great tradition, and sometimes, in addition, they are distinguished by the originality and freshness characteristic of a young art.
The adoption of Christianity by Constantine as the official religion of the Roman Empire through the Edict of Milan in 313 marks a turning-point in ecclesiastical history, but hardly in art, for old pagan ideas and motifs were taken over lock, stock, and barrel, and there were few immediate changes in style that could be attributed to the new faith rather than to the inevitable changes which were taking place as the result of the progress of time. The transference of the capital from Rome in Latin Italy to Constantinople in the Hellenistic Greek world in 330 marks another break, which was more significant as far as art was concerned, for it brought the Court and the Church, the two main sources of patronage, into the orbit of a new and distinct culture, in part Greek and in part Eastern. The Sack of Rome by barbarian Goths in 410 is also an important date, as is the year 476, when the last of the independent Roman emperors ceased to rule in the West. But more vital for art than all these was the reign of Justinian ( 527-65), for then the new Byzantine Empire was set on a sure foundation and an art and architecture which were both wholly Christian and also wholly new saw their first flowering. Change had set in before Justinian's day, for the new style was already budding when he came to the throne, and the beginning of the sixth century represents perhaps the true turning-point between the end of the old world and the beginning of the new, but it was Justinian's lavish patronage that established the new age firmly and definitely.
Question: What were the forces that caused the crusading movement and what effect did those forces have on the Crusades? What were the consequences of the Crusades?
Answer: The Crusades were Christian military expeditions undertaken between the 11th and the 14th century to recapture the Holy Land from the Muslims. The causes of the Crusades were many and complex, but prevailing religious beliefs were clearly of major importance. The Crusaders continued an older tradition of the Pilgrimage to the Holy Land, which was often imposed as a penance; now, however, they assumed a dual role as pilgrims and warriors. Such an armed pilgrimage was regarded as a justifiable war, because it was fought to recapture the places sacred to Christians. Jerusalem had been under Muslim rule since the 7th century, but pilgrimages were not cut off until the 11th century, when the Turks began to interfere with Christian pilgrims. For Christians, the very name of Jerusalem evoked visions of...

Other Papers Like Byzantine Institutions

Separation of Church and State Essay

1004 words - 5 pages does the statement or practice of religious belief in publicly funded institutions constitute an unconstitutional attempt to promote that religion? What types of conditions inhibit peoples' right to act on their own religious beliefs? Many Americans, including a growing number of both Republican and Democratic policy makers, contend that the time has come to expand religion's role in everyday life. The nation has suffered from an overly narrow

Healthcare Administration Essay

1803 words - 8 pages destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem. Later in Byzantine times and the reign of Constantine where hospitals were considered a pauper arena. Simply put, it gathered the poor in order to remove them from the elements along with societies view. During the Middle Ages the hospital ideas were taken to the Persian court by the Greeks, from here hospitals were established along with medical schools and became the model for future establishments in Islam

Censorship and Its Affect on Art

2316 words - 10 pages this is by no means the first time censorship took place in history. I personally never put too much thought into censorship and the severity of its faults until I read about the Byzantine Empire in chapter six of ArtForms. In the years of 726 to 843 a serious controversy took place among the empire, known as the Iconoclastic Controversy. During this time current Emperor Leo III ordered all images of Christ, Mary, the saints, and the angels to be

Roman Law

2755 words - 12 pages Original text - Definition of Roman law “Between 753 b.c. and a.d. 1453, the legal principles, procedures, and institutions of Roman law dominated Western, and parts of Eastern, civilization. The legal systems of western Europe, with the exception of Great Britain, are based on Roman law and are called civil-law systems. Even the common-law tradition found in the English-speaking world has been influenced by it. In the United States, the

History Vocabulary 9th Grade

2200 words - 9 pages 104. Greek Orthodox 105. Brahmanism in India 106. Han China 107. Confucius 108. Eightfold Path 109. Five Pillars of Islam 110. Ten Commandments 111. tenets– any opinion,principle,doctrine,dogma,etc. 112. Constantinople 113. Byzantine Empire 114. Islamic World 115. Muhammad – God of Islamic beliefs 116.-Carolingian Dynasty 117.-Holy Roman Empire 118.-Ottoman Empire 119.-Mughal Empire 120.-Safavid Empire 121.-cultural

Economy for Next Generation - Shared Model of Business

2330 words - 10 pages ”. The Titans are finding a desperate way out of the byzantine financial models, spiraling debts, vagaries of stock markets and socio- economic crisis so that the posterity gets a better world to dwell in. And, at the same time there is an uneasy stir amongst the Olympians about the world that will be soon bequeathed to them. A view into the Crystal ball The future looks bleak if not dark for the future generation. Some of the jittery statistics

Travel And Tourism In Stalin’S Russia

4085 words - 17 pages would reflect ‘bourgeois pleasures inappropriate for a socialist society’, which further proves the dismal state that travel and tourism were in and were not willing to actively respond to popular demand. It was not just the people who were placed within the ‘tourist cage’, institutions such as the VOKS also fell prey to the wave of xenophobia that had been encouraged in the late 1920s. Having contained numerous high-ranking officials many of

Logistics

3547 words - 15 pages the value of time and place utility. Origins and definition The term "logistics" originates from the ancient Greek " " ("logos"—"ratio, λόγος word, calculation, reason, speech, oration"). Logistics is considered to have originated in the military's need to supply themselves with arms, ammunition and rations as they moved from their base to a forward position. In ancient Greek, Roman and Byzantine empires, there were military officers with the

Creation of Money in Slovakia

3980 words - 16 pages not become richer at all. With this example we can show that money is totally irrelevant thing. On the other hand, money and financial institutions related to them are very important; money is a much better exchange unit, simplifies all the troubles of exchange and barter-specific costs. If we surrendered monetary system we would lose current exchange mechanism, in economy would prevail chaos, and would be difficult to determine what good is

Disaster Management

5805 words - 24 pages , and members of the Turkish embassy were presented with a coat of arms in acknowledgment of the Prime Minister’s support of the Egyptian Revolution.[63] His visit also brought criticism from Middle Eastern Christians when he drew comparisons in a speech between the fall of Mubarak and the Fall of Constantinople, describing the Byzantine Empire as a "dark civilization".[64][65]A week after he left, Turkish Foreign Minister, Ahmet Davutoğlu

Console

9766 words - 40 pages Byzantine Roman Empire (Constantinople) and the early Ottoman Islamic Empire struggled for centuries, though armed conflict was usually minimal. The US and the Soviet Union struggled for decades, but conflict was usually limited to proxy wars (in Africa and South East Asia) and wars to capture the loyalty of undecided blocs to their own ideology. The US and the Soviet Union came close to overt conflict on occasions (the Cuban Missile Crisis, the

Related Essays

“Why Byzantine Economy Remained One Of The Most Powerful In Europe Through Early Middle Ages?”

2068 words - 9 pages documents and accounting books. The tenth and eleventh centuries also viewed a development of “charitable houses,” institutions that were using revenue for financing the upper aristocratic class, which is another example of the power of the upper class and the Byzantine Empire economy (Oikonomides 577-581). Even though the Byzantine economy had ups and downs like any other economy in any other system, the positive thing is that through the longer

Whh Vocab Essay

769 words - 4 pages Byzantine Empire, the emperor, who also moved the capital to Byzantine 13. Hagia Sophia- the greatest Christian building in the Byzantine empire The Middle Ages 1. Carolingian Dynasty- Frankish rulers who held power near present day Germany and France, originated by Charlemagne and later Charles Martel, 2/3 major C’s of the time- Clovis was the 3rd 2. Charlemagne- Crowned emperor by pope Leo III on Christmas Day because of his actions to protect

Papacy Phenomenon Essay

4565 words - 19 pages emperors and kings. What were the reasons of such rise and supremacy of the papacy? At all times Popes played very astute and farseeing political game they used all their means to get a benefit and power. The papacy in few centuries managed to bring Roman Catholic Church out of Byzantine Emperor’s control. They developed relations with barbarian kings turning them to Christianity. Popes used their spiritual power to crown barbarian kings thereby got

Constantine The Great Essay

549 words - 3 pages century, and new gold coins (solidi) were issued, which were used until the end of the Byzantine Empire. Constantine wanted to achieve unity. He was present in the first ecumenical council of the church at Nicaea in 325. He also began the building of Constantinople in 326 on the site of ancient Greek Byzantium. The city was completed in 330 (later expanded), given Roman institutions, and made better looking by ancient Greek works of art. In addition, Constantine built churches in the Holy Land, where his mother (also a Christian) supposedly found the True Cross on which Jesus was crucified. The emperor was baptized shortly before his death, on May 22, 337.