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Business Strategy Essay

1102 words - 5 pages

Q.1 External Environment- What is External Environment
The external environment normally refers to outside forces that may influence an organization. Two factors make up the external environment: task and general. The task environment typically consists of external groups that may have an influence on daily operations of an organization. In the general environment, outside forces may influence an organization’s ability to do business.
外部環境通常是指外部勢力可能影響一個組織。有兩個因素構成的外部環境:工作和一般。任務環境通常包含可能對組織的日常運作產生影響的外部團體。在一般環境下,外部勢力可能會影響一個組織的做生意的能力。

Generally, the task environment has dimensions that are directly interactive with how an organization operates. The task environment may include competitors, ...view middle of the document...

e. not substitutes).

Rivalry likely high when: Competitors have similar size (Competitor Balance ), Low Industry Growth Rate, High Fixed Costs, High Exit Barriers, Low Differentiation

1.供應商的議價能力(Bargaining Power of Suppliers)
- 供方行業為一些具有比較穩固市場地位而不受市場劇烈競爭困撓的企業所控制,其產品的買主很多,以致於每一單個買主都不可能成為供方的重要客戶。
- 供方各企業的產品各具有一定特色,以致於買主難以轉換或轉換成本太高,或者很難找到可與供方企業產品相競爭的替代品。

2.購買者的議價能力 (Bargaining Power of Buyers)
  購買者主要通過其壓價與要求提供較高的產品或服務質量的能力,來影響行業中現有企業的盈利能力。一般來說,滿足如下條件的購買者可能具有較強的討價還價力量:

- 購買者的總數較少,而每個購買者的購買量較大,占了賣方銷售量的很大比例。

- 賣方行業由大量相對來說規模較小的企業所組成。

- 購買者所購買的基本上是一種標準化產品,同時向多個賣主購買產品在經濟上也完全可行。
- 購買者有能力實現後向一體化,而賣主不可能前向一體化。(註:簡單按中國說法,客大欺主)

3.新進入者的威脅(Threat of New Entrants)
  新進入者在給行業帶來新生產能力、新資源的同時,將希望在已被現有企業瓜分完畢的市場中贏得一席之地,這就有可能會與現有企業發生原材料與市場份額的競爭,最終導致行業中現有企業盈利水平降低,嚴重的話還有可能危及這些企業的生存。競爭性進入威脅的嚴重程度取決於兩方面的因素,這就是進入新領域的障礙大小與預期現有企業對於進入者的反應情況。

4.替代品的威脅 (Substitutes)
  兩個處於同行業或不同行業中的企業,可能會由於所生產的產品是互為替代品,從而在它們之間產生相互競爭行為,這種源自於替代品的競爭會以各種形式影響行業中現有企業的競爭戰略。首先,現有企業產品售價以及獲利潛力的提高,將由於存在著能被用戶方便接受的替代品而受到限制;第二,由於替代品生產者的侵入,使得現有企業必須提高產品質量、或者通過降低成本來降低售價、或者使其產品具有特色,否則其銷量與利潤增長的目標就有可能受挫;第三,源自替代品生產者的競爭強度,受產品買主轉換成本高低的影響。總之,替代品價格越低、質量越好、用戶轉換成本越低,其所能產生的競爭壓力就強;而這種來自替代品生產者的競爭壓力的強度,可以具體通過考察替代品銷售增長率、替代品廠家生產能力與盈利擴張情況來加以描述。
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5.同業競爭者的競爭程度 (Rivalry)
  大部分行業中的企業,相互之間的利益都是緊密聯繫在一起的,作為企業整體戰略一部分的各企業競爭戰略,其目標都在於使得自己的企業獲得相對於競爭對手的優勢,所以,在實施中就必然會產生衝突與對抗現象,這些衝突與對抗就構成了現有企業之間的競爭。現有企業之間的競爭常常表現在價格、廣告、產品介紹、售後服務等方面,其競爭強度與許多因素有關。
Q2. Differentiation and Low cost Strategy

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In the low cost strategy, a company must have a thorough understanding of costs and how to continually reduce them. The company must be willing to standardize its offerings in order to manage costs, which implies that exceptions requested by prospective customers must be limited or excluded in order to keep costs down.
在低成本戰略,公司必須有一個透徹的了解成本,如何不斷降低它們。該公司必須願意自己的產品規範,以控制成本,這意味著由潛在客戶要求的例外情況必須加以限制或排除,以降低成本。

The other approach we are examining is differentiation. Differentiation involves being perceived by the market place as having a relatively higher value to the customer or user than the offerings of its competitors, and often at the same or even higher pricing levels. These are different customers – not buying just on price.
我們正在研究的另一種方法是分化。差異化包括被感知的市場具有相對較高的價值給客戶或用戶比其競爭對手的產品,並經常在相同或更高的價格水平。這些都是不同的客戶 - 不只是購買價格

In a differentiation strategy, the company must totally understand its customers’ needs and preferences. It must be driven to innovate to continually address those wants and needs. And, it must build its brand to maintain its position and visibility.
在差異化戰略,公司必須徹底了解客戶的需求和喜好。必須推動創新,以不斷滿足這些需要和需求。而且,它必須建立自己的品牌,以保持其地位和知名度。

幾年前,索尼出售的收音機隨身聽和光盤播放器以更高的價格比任何競爭對手,但佔主導地位的市場。其原因似乎是,他們提供的最優質,最穩定的性能,並在市場上最好的聲音傳遞。這裡有趣的是,由於在數量和良好的設計和產品設計,索尼也是,很長一段時間內,低成本的生產也是如此。這使有足夠的資源,以有效地進行市場的競爭對手,以及具有的資源做更多的產品研發和改進,以保持索尼的最前沿的索尼獨特的優勢。

索尼的例子實際上是低成本和差異化的策略,其中做得很好,可以非常有效地在市場上的組合。要做到這一點,需要承擔這兩種方法的較高水平,但好處是可以突出。多年來,索尼是遠遠領先於個人音樂設備,最高容量和盈利能力。最終其位置是由在其他技術,如智能電話,MP3播放器的發展克服,並且,最可能的是,索尼的最終上什麼得到了他們的最高濃度的損失。
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