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Business Formulation Essay

4913 words - 20 pages

Daryush Farid, Mehran Nejati, Heydar Mirfakhredini, Balanced scorecard application in universities and higher education institutes: Implementation guide in an iranian context / Annals of University of Bucharest, Economic and Administrative Series, Nr. 2 (2008) 31-45


Close compete of universities and higher education institutes in recent year in order to offer high quality services and achieve higher national and International rank, has led to an increase in their demand for a customized approach for assessing ...view middle of the document...

The purpose of this article is to examine the concept of quality education within higher education institutes and universities, and explore the use of performance models and goal-setting in universities as a means for higher education excellence. The article discusses the most practical models for universities' performance enhancement, and proposes an improved Balanced Scorecard model to improve quality in

Yazd University, Iran.

Daryush Farid, Mehran Nejati, Heydar Mirfakhredini – Balanced scorecard application in universities and higher education institutes: Implementation guide in an iranian context / Annals of University of Bucharest, Economic and Administrative Series, Nr. 2 (2008) 31-45

higher education. It also suggests the related performance indicators as well as quality improvement approaches for higher education institutes.

Quality in higher education Quality in higher education is a complex and multifaceted concept and a single appropriate definition of quality is lacking (Harvey and Green, 1993). As a consequence, consensus concerning “the best way to define and measure service quality” (Clewes, 2003, p. 71) does not as yet exist. Every stakeholder in higher education (e.g., students, government, professional bodies) has a particular view of quality dependent on their specific needs. O'Neill and Palmer (2004, p. 42) define service quality in higher education as “the difference between what a student expects to receive and his/her perceptions of actual delivery”. Guolla (1999) shows that students' perceived service quality is an antecedent to student satisfaction. Positive perceptions of service quality can lead to student satisfaction and satisfied students may attract new students through word-of-mouth communication and return themselves to the university to take further courses (Marzo-Navarro et al., 2005; Wiers-Jenssen et al., 2002; Mavondo et al., 2004; Schertzer and Schertzer, 2004). Zeithaml et al. (1993) distinguish between three types of service expectations: desired service, adequate service, and predicted service. Customers have a desired level of service which they hope to receive comprising what customers believe can be performed and what should be performed. Customers also have a minimum level of acceptable service as they realize that service will not always reach the desired levels; this is the adequate service level. Between these two service levels is a zone of tolerance that customers are willing to accept. Finally, customers have a predicted level of service, which is the level of service they believe the company will perform.

The balanced scorecard Robert S Kaplan and David P Norton (1992) first introduced the concept of balance scorecard in their Harvard Business Review article “The Balance Scorecard – Measures that Drive Performance”. Focusing on the fact that managers needed a balanced presentation of both financial and operational measures they propounded four perspectives as the drivers of...

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