1. Shaw and Barry distinguish two different forms of utilitarianism. What are these two forms? Briefly describe each and use examples.
The two forms of utilitarianism are act utilitarianism and rule utilitarianism. Act utilitarianism states we must ask ourselves what the consequences of a particular act in a particular situation will be for all those affected. If its consequences bring more net good than those of any alternative course of action, then this action is the right one and the one we should perform. (Shaw and Barry, p. 60) The other form is rule utilitarianism. Rule utilitarianism states the utilitarian standard should be applied not to the individual actions but to moral ...view middle of the document...
What are these three basic principles?
The first principal is concerns the original acquisition of holdings, the appropriation of unheld goods or the creation of new goods. If a person acquires a holding in accordance with this principle, then he or she is entitled to it. The second principle concerns transfers of already-owned goods from one person to another: how people may legitimately transfer holdings to others and how they may legitimately get holdings from others. If a person possesses a holding because of a legitimate transfer, then he or she is entitled to it. The third principle states that one can justly acquire a holding only in accord with the two principles previously discussed. If you come by a holding in some other way, you aren’t entitled to it. (Shaw and Barry, p. 114-115)
4. Two main features of John Rawls's theory of distributive justice are particularly important. What are these two features? Describe them.
The first feature of John Rawl’s theory of distributive justice is that each individual has a guarantee of certain familiar and fundamental liberties. The second feature is more controversial. The second theory states that social and economic inequalities are justified only if those inequalities benefit the least advantaged members of society. (Shaw and Barry, p 120)
5. What is the MAXIMIN rule for making decisions?
The MAXIMIN rule for making decisions states you should select the alternative under which the worst that could happen to you is better than is better than the worst that could...