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Btec Sport Cardiovascular System Essay

2279 words - 10 pages

Cardiovascular System
The cardiovascular system transports oxygen around the body to the working muscles. It also helps to transport waste products such as CO2 that is caused by aerobic respiration so that it can be disposed. Your heart is a fist sized muscle that is located on the left side of your chest and is an involuntary muscle and an adult heart approximately weighs 255grams. The heart is separated by a septum. The left side of the heart is thicker than the right because it has to pump oxygenated blood around the whole body whereas the right side just pumps de-oxygenated blood to the brain. There are 2 inlets and 2 outlets in the heart, there are also 4 valves in the heart that are ...view middle of the document...

Once the oxygen reaches the heart it enters the left atrium where it then goes through the bicuspid valve and into the left ventricle. The left ventricle then contracts and the oxygenated blood ispumped through the aortic valve and through the aorta then the oxygenated blood is diffused into the working muscles. CO2 is then diffused into the blood as a waste product of anaerobic respiration in the cells of the working muscle. The blood then then comes back into the heart through the superior and inferior vena cava as the heart relaxes. It is then pumped through the tricuspid valve to stop the backflow of blood and into the right ventricle. Next it goes through the pulmonary valve in the pulmonary artery where the CO2 in the deoxygenated blood is then diffused into the alveoli of the lungs and the O2 diffuses into the blood. The blood is then carried back to the pulmonary vein where the process starts again. As well as delivering oxygen, the heart also delivers nutrients. The nutrients come from the foods that we eat. One of the main nutrients that our blood transports is carbohydrates that are needed in our body for glucagon. We get carbohydrates from foot like potatoes or wheat. Another nutrient that our body needs is protein as it is required for amino acids. Amino acids are important for our bodies because they help to repair damaged tissue. Protein is found in food like chicken and eggs. The other important nutrient that our blood transports is fat which is needed for fatty acids. The food that we should eat containing these fatty acids is food like nuts or cold water fish. When we eat our food it is first masticated and is then pushed down to the stomach where it is broken down further. Chyme is then formed and then the food then travels to the small intestine. As the food is pushed through the small intestine all the nutrients are diffused into the blood stream and are carried to the appropriate places. The rest of the waste then passes through the large intestine and is secreted out of the body.

Blood Vessels
Arteries
The smooth muscle surrounding the arteries enables their diameter to be decreased and increased as required. This contractility of the arteries helps to maintain blood pressure as the blood flow changes. The arteries are largely deep, except where they can be felt at a –pulse point. These vessels branch into smaller arterioles that ultimately deliver blood to the capillaries. Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart. This blood is normally oxygenated, with the exception of the pulmonary arteries, which carries deoxygenated blood to the lungs. Arteries have two major properties, elasticity and contractility. When the heart pumps blood into the large arteries, the arteries expand in order to make room for the extra blood. They do not require valves as the pressure within them remains high at all times, except at the point where the pulmonary artery leaves the heart where there is a...

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