Operant Conditioning Theory
Adapting response to different given situations, Operant conditioning is a connectionist theory; connectionist theories as well as associative theories rely on a learner connected or linking a stimulus from the environment with a movement response. Reinforcement is the key to this theory, there are two types of reinforcement, positive reinforcement which is any event that increases the likelihood of the same response being produced in the future and negative reinforcement which is any even that decreases the likelihood of the same response being produced in the future.
This theory proposes that positively reinforced responses will be strengthened and will ...view middle of the document...
The social learning theory is a convincing theory that shows that levels of aggression in sport are accompanied by the rising levels of violence in society.
In sport there is a system of negative reinforcement to discourage negative behaviours on the sport’s field this is why rugby players get sent to the sin bin and footballers get yellow and red cards as it is a form of social reinforcement. An example backing up this theory is the imitation of the behaviour of sports stars such as David Beckham by means of copying his hairstyle, David Beckham is a significant player who is often praised for his skill therefore can be seen as a role model this social reinforcement can aid to others imitating his behaviour and appearance.
Schema is a build up of various different experiences, which the theory states can be altered and used in order to respond to the demands of different given situations. Applying previous experience to new experiences is called transfer. The schema theory suggests that plans are not stored as separate items by the closed loop theory and instead are contained in the long term memory with relationships to motor programmes. These relationships are classed as general movements and can adapt quickly in response to given situations.
Experience is gathered from information from four areas. These areas are termed memory items and represent a big element of the schema theory, these memory items are: The knowledge of initial conditions, knowledge of movements required to produce the skill, knowledge of the outcome as well as it results and the sensory consequences of the movement. The schema is a motor programme which can be modified slightly to meet the varying demands of a given task, for example a football pass needs to varied in terms of strength and direction because the position that the player finds himself/herself in will always differ even if only slightly, also the same is true for the situation in which they are producing the pass.