Brown v. Board of Education— Before, During, and After
The Jim Crow Laws were state and local laws in the United States that mandated racial segregation in all public facilities with a supposedly “separate but equal” status for black Americans. The Jim Crow Laws were enacted from 1876 to 1965; the laws gave the black Americans a number of economic, educational and social disadvantages. Some examples of the Jim Crow laws are the segregation of public schools, public places and public transportation; the segregation of restrooms, restaurants and drinking fountains for whites and blacks. The U.S. military was also segregated.
The Jim Crow Laws had established segregation of public schools, which separated the schools between black and white students; the laws denied black children equal opportunities unconstitutional. An example of ...view middle of the document...
In the end, the U.S. Supreme Court had normally ruled in favor of the board of education, and most of the ideas about equal opportunities in the public schools had been denied. The case had begun in Topeka, Kansas.
The law case had then filed against the board of education. The one defending Oliver Brown was Thurgood Marshall, who was at the time the chief counsel of the NAACP. Also, he would later be appointed to the U.S. Supreme Court in 1967. The actual Brown v. Board of Education case has composed of 5 individual cases, in which the one with Oliver Brown was one of them. All of the individual cases were sponsored by the NAACP.
In spring 1953, the court heard the case but was unable to decide the issue and asked to rehear the case in fall 1953, with special attention to whether the 14th amendment’s equal protection clause prohibited segregation of public schools. In September 1953, President Eisenhower appointed Earl Warren as the Chief Justice. Afterwards, Warren began to discuss the case with the other justices for some time. In the end, all the justices had come up with a unanimous decision on the case.
The key holding was that even if segregated black and white schools were of equal quality in facilities and teachers, segregation by itself was harmful to black students and left unconstitutional. They found that a significant psychological and social advantage was given to black children from the nature of segregation itself.
Soon after the district court decision, election outcomes and the political climate in Topeka changed. The Board of Education of Topeka began to end segregation in the Topeka elementary schools in August 1953. The Topeka Public Schools administration building was named in honor of McKinley Burnett, the NAACP chapter president who organized the case. Monroe Elementary School was designated into a U.S. National Historic Site unit of the National Park Service on October 26, 1992.