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Bretton Woods Essay

924 words - 4 pages

TRABAJO
 TEMA
 2:
 LA
 CONFERENCIA
 DE
 BRETTON
 WOODS
 
  El
 actual
 sistema
 monetario
 internacional
 es
 heredero
 del
 que
 se
 creo
 en
 julio
  de
  1944,
  en
  Bretton
  Woods
  (New
  Hampshire)
  donde
  tuvo
  lugar
  una
  Conferencia
  Monetaria
 y
 Financiera
 de
 la
 que
 participaron
 44
 países.
 
 

Las
  negociaciones
  para
  implementar
  el
  sistema
  partieron
  de
  una
  teoría
  desarrollada
  por
  John
  Maynard
  Keynes,
  que
  entendía
  que
  el
  crecimiento
  ...view middle of the document...

  EEUU
  tuvo
  mucho
  poder
  en
  las
  decisiones
 y
 logró
 imponer
 su
 propio
 modelo,
 el
 del
 economista
 Harry
 Dexter
 White
  por
 el
 encima
 del
 propuesto
 por
 Gran
 Bretaña.
 
 
 
 

La
  caída
  generalizada
  del
  PIB
  llevo
  a
  los
  gobiernos
  de
  la
  época
  a
  políticas
  económicas
  de
  carácter
  nacionalista:
  devaluaciones
  competitivas
  para
  arrebatar
  mercados
  a
  otros
  países
  y
  elevación
  de
  aranceles,
  imponiendo
  grandes
  obstáculos
  a
  las
  importaciones.
  Se
  producía
  pues
  un
  cerramiento
  de
  los
  países
  con
  una
  fuerte
  política
 proteccionista.
 
  De
  esta
  forma
  la
  crisis
  inicial
  se
  hizo
  más
  profunda,
  hasta
  convertirse
  en
  la
  mayor,
 con
 diferencia,
 de
 la
 historia
 del
 capitalismo.
 Una
 consecuencia
 sociopolítica
 de
  la
 crisis
 fue
 el
 ascenso
 del
 fascismo
 en
 Europa.
 Con
 estos
 precedentes,
 los
 creadores
  del
  Sistema
  de
  Bretton
  Woods
  buscaban
  crear
  una
  serie
  de
  foros
  internacionales
  para
  mantener
 contactos
 multilaterales
 y
 conseguir:
  1.-­Estabilizar
  el
  sistema
  monetario
  internacional,
  creándose
  un
  sistema
  de
  tipos
  de
  cambio
  fijos.
  Se
  produjo
  la
  sustitución
  del
  patrón-­‐oro
  por
  un
 patrón-­‐dólar.
 Hasta
 entonces
 los
 países
 respaldaban
 las
 diferentes
 monedas
  nacionales
  con
  sus
  reservas
  de
  oro
  que,
  con
  el
  enorme
  gasto
  bélico,
  habían
  caído
  en
  picado
  en
  la
  mayoría
  de
  países.
  La
  conferencia
  de
  Bretton
  Woods
  estableció
  una
  equivalencia
  fija
  entre
  dólares
  y
  oro
  (una
  onza
  de
  este
  metal
  valdría
 siempre
 35
 dólares)
 con
 lo
 que
 la
 moneda
 estadounidense
 se
 convirtió
  en
  la
  divisa
  de
  referencia.
  Años
  después
  esta
  medida
  quedó
  anulada
  de
  facto
  puesto
 que
 EE
 UU,
 cuyo
 gasto
 era
 creciente
 a
 consecuencia
 de
 la
 Guerra
 Fría,
 no
  podía
  mantener
  la
  equivalencia.
  Este
  sistema
  de
  tipos
  de
  cambio
  estuvo
  supervisado
  por
  una
  institución
  internacional
  (el
  Fondo
  Monetario
  Internacional)
 
 ...

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