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Breast Cancer Essay

1458 words - 6 pages

Breast Cancer: Early Detection Saves Lives
Linda A Long
Mount Olive College
ENG 312 McBride

Abstract
Early detection is crucial when it comes to breast cancer. This paper is going to discuss how a diagnosis is made, what treatment options are available as well as the effect our physical health has on recurrence. Breast cancer is the number two killer of women by disease in the United States. I will discuss contributing factors that will increase a woman’s risk of breast cancer. Breast cancer can leave physical as well as emotional scars on those affected by this disease. It is likely that someone in your family or someone you know has had or will have breast cancer and has or will ...view middle of the document...

Randomized controlled trials have been carried out to test the theory of early detection and the impact on mortality rates from breast cancer.
The Health Insurance Plan study in New York in the 1960s used physical examination and mammography to screen 40-to 64- year-old women Tabar` and Dean (2010). This controlled trial showed a 30% significant decrease in mortality from breast cancer due to stage shifting from stage III or IV to stage II. The study indicated that diagnosis and treatment in breast cancers earliest phases could prevent death, thus proving that breast cancer is not a systemic disease at its conception but may become systemic if not arrested by early detection and screening.
Breast cancer comes from a genetic change in one cell Manoharan and Pugalendhi (2010). The change can be a result of external agents such as radiation, carcinogens and viruses. Common carcinogens include smoking and alcohol. Studies have concluded that diet, obesity, heredity, infectious diseases, ultra violet light and exposure to chemicals cause between 75 and 80% of all cancers.
Carcinogenesis (the act of a cell turning into a cancerous cell) does not happen in one step, it is a multiple step process that starts with tumor development. Tumor development results from the genetic changes that occur as a result of insult from a carcinogen or from heredity. Tumor promotion occurs when genetic mutation of the cells begins to multiply. Tumor promotion happens when the genetically compromised cells transform into pre-neoplastic cells. Tumor progress is the step of evolving into a higher degree of malignancy Manoharan and Puygalendhi (2010). It is reported that 30% of cancer could be prevented by modifying your life style to avoid key risk factors Manoharan and Pugalendhi (2010).
Breast cancer begins in the tissue of the breast. The type of cancer will depend on the location of the cancer within the breast. Ductal cancer is located in the ducts (tubes) that move milk from the ducts to the nipple. Lobular cancer is located in the lobules of the breast, the part of the breast that produces milk. If cancer penetrates the membrane that surrounds or ducts it is called infiltrating or invasive carcinoma. Inflammatory breast cancer is the most serious and aggressive of all breast cancers. Breast cancer is spreading across the world as other nations adopt our western habits Manoharan and Pugalendhi (2010).
Breast cancer is the second leading cause of death in women and is the most common type of cancer among females of the United States and European countries Manoharan and Pugalendhi (2010). It is estimated that 3.9/100,000 to 101.1/100,000 incidences of breast cancer occur world- wide. Breast cancer incidence varies widely due to differences in racial and ethnic make- up, health resources and lifestyles. The lowest rate of breast cancer occurs in Eastern and South-East Asian countries. Breast cancer is 100 times more common in females than...

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