1. Introduction 1
2. Literature review 2
2.1 Debate on the definition of brand personality 2
2.2 Debate on brand personality measure scales 3
2.2.1 Aaker’s five dimensions brand personality scale 3
2.1.2 Aaker’s scale VS. Geuens et al.’s scale 5
2.1.3 Aaker’s scale VS. other culture specified scales 7
2.3 Debate on building the appropriate brand personality 8
3. Conclusion and further discussion 10
The concept brand personality, which refers to the idea of associating human personality to a brand, is said that it could boost consumer preference and usage and has a positive influence on consumer loyalty and levels of trust (Sirgy, 1982; ...view middle of the document...
This can be illustrated by the example that consumers who would like to express their personality of successful and upper class by purchasing luxury brands such as Rolex, which is noble and deluxe. Therefore, brand personality is on the table with the responsibility of product differentiation and satisfying consumers’ emotional and personal requirements.
As brand personality is such significant in the marketing field, a considerable amount of attention has been given to this notion. Huge progress has been achieved by researchers within lase few decades, but some key questions are still under vehemently debate and are also challenges facing by marketers in practice. The purpose of this paper is to briefly review and discuss the current state of three main debates that are going on in this field: (1) debate on the definition of brand personality (what is brand personality), (2) debate on brand personality measure scales (how to measure brand personality) and (3) debate on brand personality measure scales (how to choose appropriate brand personality). The first two debate topics are more about theoretical researchers whereas the third one relates to practical implementation more.
2. Literature review
2.1 Debate on the definition of brand personality
At the early stage, the concept brand personality is about using human personality metaphor for brands (Azoulay and Kapferer, 2003). Marketers imported this existing concept “personality” from psychology and combine it with the marketing concept “brand”(Plummer, 1984; Batra et al, 1993). However, being used for decades, this concept was not formally defined until Aanker’s (1997) attempt to develop a theoretical scale for brand personality.
Most research papers about brand personality today are based on Aaker’s pioneering scale of brand personality that divided brand personality into five dimensions (Aaker, 1997). To establish the content validity in her paper, Aaker (1997) firstly proposed a definition to brand personality as: “the set of human characteristics associated to a brand”. For example, under this definition, Absolut vodka is described as hip, cool and young, while Stoli is described as conventional, intelligent and old. This definition defined brand personality as the whole not as a part and was soon spread and became popular. Even though many researchers have criticized Aaker’s definition, it is still believed to be the most commonly used and most wildly spread brand personality definition (Das, 2012; Avis, 2011).
Azoulay and Kapferer (2003) pointed out that there were many other “human characteristics” that can be associated to a brand such as inner values, physical traits and pictures of the typical users and these other human characteristics can muddle this concept, so they criticized Aaker’s definition for being too loose. Sticking to the commonly agreed psychological definition of human personality summarized by Bloch (1997) in the Dictionnaire fondamental de la psychologie,...