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Botany Plants Essay

4452 words - 18 pages

PHOTOSYNTHESIS
• • • • • It is the physico-chemical process on which the every existence of life on this planet depends. It is an endergonic reaction and anabolic process. It is synthesis of carbohydrates from CO2 and H2O by utilising the light energy in which O2 is the bye product. The overall reaction of photosynthesis can be represented by the equation:

Light and 6CO2 + 12H2O   Chlorophyll →   C6 H12 O6 + 6 H2O + 6 O2 • From carbohydrates, the other organic substances of the plant are formed. • Green plants utilise only 1% of solar energy that falls on this planet to fix 2 billion tones of CO2 every year. • The algae of oceans carry out 90% of global photosynthesis. ...view middle of the document...

These pigment molecules absorb the light energy and transfer to the reaction centre by inductive resonance or resonance transfer. Photosynthetic pigments • These are three types known as Chlorophylls, Carotenoids and Phycobilins. 1. Chlorophylls • These are green photosynthetic pigments mainly responsible for photosynthesis. Structurally a chlorophyll molecule consists of a Porphyrin head and Phytol tail. • • Porphyrin head is made of 4 pyrrole groups attached in cyclic manner. It has a Mg atom at the centre. • Phytol tail is 20 C alcohol esterified to the 4th pyrrolering of Porphyrin. • There are 5 types of chlorophylls known as a, b, c, d and e. • Chlorophyll a is present in all photosynthetic organisms except bacteria. Its chemical formula is C55 H72 O5 N4 Mg. Structurally it has –CH3 group at 3rd Carbon of II pyrrole group. It is blue green in colour. • Chlorophyll b is present in Green algae and all higher plants. Its chemical formula is C55 H70 O6 N4 Mg. Structurally it has –CHO group in place of methyl group of chlorophyll a. it is olive green in colour. • Chlorophyll c is present in Brown algae (Phaeophyceae) and Diatoms (Bacillariophyceae). • Chlorophyll d is present in Red algae (Rhodophyceae). • Chlorophyll e is present in Xanthophyceae algae. 2. Carotenoids • These are terpenoid group of pigments with orange, yellow – purple colours. • These are open chain compounds with conjugated double bonds ending with ionone rings. These are of two types known as Carotenes and Xanthophylls. • Carotenes are non-oxygenated carotenoids or hydrocarbons with chemical formula as C40 H56. The common types of carotenes are α- carotene, β- carotene and Lycopene. • Xanthophylls are oxygenated carotenoids with the chemical formula as C40 H56 O2. The most common types are Lutein, Zeaxanthin etc.

Carotenoids absorb the light energy and transfer it to reaction centre. They protect the chlorophylls from photo bleaching. Phycobilins • These are linear tetrapyrrole group of pigments without Mg. They resemble chlorophylls. • They are red coloured Phycoerythrin and blue coloured Phycocyanin. • These are present only in Red algae and Blue-Green algae. • Since carotenoids and phycobilins cannot utilise the solar energy directly they are called as accessory pigments. • About 95 – 99 % of photons trapped by accessory pigments are transferred to reaction centre. • Absorption spectrum: it is the graph that indicates the absorption of different wavelengths of light by pigments. It is known by using Spectrophotometer. • Action spectrum: It is the graph that shows the rate of photosynthesis at different wavelengths of light. Light • In photosynthesis only visible light is usually utilised. Its wavelength ranges from 390 – 760 nm. It is known as Photosynthetically Active Radiation. • Light has wave and particle nature. Each particle is called as Photon and the packet of energy present in each photon is Quantum. • Energy of photon is inversely proportional to its...

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