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Book Report

1413 words - 6 pages

The Rise and Spread of Islam

•The Post Classical Period: Faith and Commerce
- Spread of major world religions
o Budhism
o Christianity
o Islam
1. Spread through preaching, trade routes
- Development of Systematic
o Boat trade
2. Indian
Trade spread disease, religion, ideas
- Three Big Ideas
o Trans-regional communication and exchange networks
o Forms of state organize. Diversify
o All societies increased productive capacity
• Pre-Islamic Arabia
- Bedoin culture based on Kin/clan/tribal networks
o Survival dependent on loyalty to clan
o Magnified by harsh ...view middle of the document...

Profession of faith
2. Pray 5x a day facing Mecca
3. Fast during Ramadan (month of Holy observation)
4. Ray Zakat for charity
5. Perforn a hajj
• Muhammad’s Successor?
- Died in 632- who should succeed him? (political leader)
o He hadn’t named a successor
- Creation of Caliph – political and religious successor to Muhammad
- Ali – Muhammad’s son-in-law?
- Abu Bakr – Muhammad’s close friend (successor)
o Ali and supporters not too happy
o Ridda Wars
• Spread of Islam
- New sense of unity and strength
- Motivation of spread was economic
- Booty came from conquest
- Jihad theory of conquest not true
o They would rather conquer than convert
- Sasanian empire weak – over thrown by 651 CE
- Byzantines weakened by Arabs, but not destroyed lost most of their land, which was never regained
- Rise of naval supremacy
o Technology (trade and military)
• The Sunni – Shia Split
- The main division is originally not religious, but political
- Sunni Muslims: Abu Bakr was the best choice as caliph: caliphs should be chosen from the umma (Muslim community) (85%)
- Shia Muslims: Ali should have been picked. They recognize Sunni leaders. (15%)
• Caliphs and Caliphates
- Caliph= Islamic religious and political leaders
- Cliphate – dynasty of caliphs
- Rashidun or Rightly Guided Coliphs (632-661)
- Abu Bakr; Umar, Uthman; Ali
- Umayyads (661-750, centered in Damaseus)
- Abbasids (750-1258, centered in Baghdad)
- Co’rdobus (756-1031, Iberia)
- Fatimids (909-1171, North Africa, Iberia)
- Almohads (1145-1269, North Africa, Iberia)
- Ottomans (1517-1922)
• Umay yad Caliphate
- Political center moved to Bamascus
- Small Arab and Muslim Aristocracy ruled over empire of non-Arabs/Muslims
- Mawali- non Arab Muslim converts
- Dhimini – people of the book
o Christianity, juddhism
o Allowed to keep stuff (tolerated)
- New expectations for women and marriage
o Pursue professional careers
- Umay yads addicted to luxury- big reason for down fall
- Revolts in empire began in 740 CE – rise of Abbasid challenge
- Abbasid defeated Umay yads in 750- hunted down all members of Umay yad family
- Abd al- Rohman escaped—formed coliphats in Cordoba
• Abbasid Caliphate
- Moved capital to Baghdad
- Bureaucratization of empire – Wazier
o Chief administrator, very powerful
- Full integration of converts
- Rise in the status of merchants—Growth of Cities, (Baghdad: beautiful)
- Translation and preservations of classical text, growth of culture
o Developments in technology, math, ect.
- Key to development of trade routes

The Byzantine Empire and Orthodox Europe

•Christendom- Third Wave Civilization
- Enjoyed global popularity in 6th/7th C

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