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Blablabla Essay

709 words - 3 pages

 这里我要说的既不艰深也不易引起纷争;我之所以认为它值得探讨,是因为它真实存在,至少部分如此。我们要讨论的现象既普遍又显见,不注意到它简直是不可能的,人们至少可以在此处或彼处零星地看见它。尽管如此,我还是发现没有人特别地就此进行研究。

    哲 学家关于“陈述(句式)”的任务只是“描述”事物状态或“陈述某项既非真亦非假的事实”的假设古已有之。确实,语法学家不断指出,不是所有“句子”都是 (用来组成)陈述的:[1]传统上,在(语法学家的)陈述句之外,还有疑问句和感叹句,表达命令或愿望或让步的句子。无疑,哲学家们也不打算否认这点,尽 管它们多少有些不准确地用“句子”来指代“陈述句”。当然,语法学家和哲学家都认识到,甚至是用现有的稀少而空洞的语法标记,诸如词序、语气等来把问句和 祈使句等句式与陈述句区分开,也绝无容易可言:尽管,也许,人们不会老是惦记着明显出自这一事实的种种困难。我们如何确定什么是什么呢?它们各自的界限与 定义又是什么呢?

    然而近年来,许多此前人们——哲学家和语言学家们——不假思索地当作“陈述”来接受的事物得到了新的关注并受到 了详细的检查。此番审查多少是间接兴起的——至少在哲学来说是这样的。首先是(对事实的)陈述应该“为真”这样一个观点——这倒不是说,这种观点的形成不 伴随着某种可叹的教条主义——,接着也就有了许多“陈述”只不过是伪陈述(pseudo-statement)这样的观点。最显而易见的是,许多“陈述” ...view middle of the document...

a) “我愿意(也即我愿意与这名女子举行婚礼,使之成为我的合法妻子)”——就像人们在婚礼中说的那样。[5]
(E. b) “我把这艘船命名为伊丽莎白女王号”——就像人们用瓶子敲击船首时说的那样。
(E. c) “我把我的表遗赠给我兄弟”——就像遗嘱中写的那样。
(E.) “六便士,我赌明天下雨。”
 
    从 这些例子中我们可以清晰地看出,句子的使用(当然,是在适切的环境中)不是为了描述我言说我要干的事情[6]时应该得到言说的行为,也不是为了陈述我正在 做这样一个事实;在这里,之所以说,是为了要做。这里引述的话语既非真亦非假:我明确地断言(assert)而非主张(argue)。如同“该死的”这句 话既非真亦非假一样,这也不需要进一步的辩解:它可能是“用于通报信息”的句子——却又与之大不相同。命名船只也就是说出(在适当的环境中)“我命 名……”这样的字眼。在我登记或走上圣坛等之前说“我愿意”的时候,我并不是就一场婚姻作报告:我构筑这次婚姻并且是这场婚姻的一部分。

    我 们该把这种类型的话语称作什么?[7]我提议称之为施事句式或施事性话语,或者,简称为“施事句”。像“祈使/命令句(imperative)”一词一 样,我们也可以以同根变换的方式来使用“施事句”这个术语。[8]当然,这个名称源自“行为/表演(perform)”一词,这个动词常与名词“行动 (action)”对应:施事句指的是这样的句子,对这种句子来说,发出话语也就是在施行行动——而不是被规范地思虑为只是在言说某物。

    除 此之外还有许多可用的术语,这些术语都相应地覆盖了多于或少于施事句的范围:譬如,许多施事句都是契约式(“我赌”)或宣言式(“我宣战”)的话语。但据 我所知,现有的术语中,没有一个足以将其完全覆盖。对此,最切近的技术性术语可能是“实施性(operative)”,就像律师在严格意义上用来指涉文书 中那一部分条款,也即,那些使交易(transaction)生效(无论是转易契还是其他类型的文书)的条款那样:交易,是该文书的主要目标,而其余的部 分,则仅“详述”交易得以生效的具体环境。[9]但“实施性”也有其他意义,而确实近年来它的意义通常也只比“重要性”多那么一点点。为此,我更倾向于使 用一个新的术语,尽管其词源并非不相关,但我想,我们最好还是不要给它添上其他预想的意义。

言说能实现么?

    那么,我们能说:

    “结婚就是说几句话”,或

    “打赌不过就是说话”么?

    这种说法一眼看上去是奇怪甚至是轻薄的,但如果我们加上足够的保障,它也可能变得一点不奇怪。

    对 此,一个最初而彻底的反对意见可能是这样的;而这并非无关紧要。在很多情况下,不说话(无论是书面的还是口头的话语)而以别样的方式来施行同样类型的行 动,是可能的。比如说,在某些地方,人们通过同居来举行婚礼,或通过把硬币扔进博彩机器来打赌。因此,也许,我们应该对以上的观点稍作改变,说“说某些特 定的话就是结婚”或“结婚,在某些情况下,不过是说几句话”或“说某些特定的话就是在打赌”。

    然而,这样的评论之所以听起来危 险,其真实的原因很可能在于另一个显见的事实,对此,我们稍后将在细节上重新加以考虑。这个事实就是,说话,通常确实是动作(无论是打赌还是其他的什么动 作)施行时一个甚至就是那个主要发生的事件,而动作的施行同时也就是话语的目标,但通常来说——即便曾经如此——动作要被视作已得以施行,话语绝非唯一必 要的东西。普遍地说,说话的环境某种程度上,在某些方面必须使适切的,这也是必要的;同样必要的还有,说话者本人或他人同时也应该施行其他动作,无论是 “物理”还是“精神”动作,甚或说更多的话。因此,为命名船只,必不可少的条件是,我必须是被选定来为船只命名的那个人,为举行(基督教的)婚礼,我必不 能是一个在世、健康、未曾离异的妇人的丈夫等等,这是绝对必要的;为打赌,同样必要的是提出赌咒的那个人要被接受为赌咒的承载者(他必须做某件事,比如 说,说“[赌咒]完成了”),同样,一件我说“给你”却从不交给你的礼物也算不上礼物。

    到目前为止,一切都说的不错。动作可以以 不同于施事性话语的方式得以施行,而(对于施事性话语来说)在任何情况下,环境,包括其他的行动,都必须适切。但我们可以提出全然不同的意见来对此加以反 对,而这一次的反对意见,则会在心里造成极大误解,特别是当我们设想一些像“我承诺……”那样更令人望而生畏的施事句的时候。为得到“严肃的”对待,这些 话必须以“严肃的方式”来说出么?普遍来说,这倒是真的,即使在表达上还有些模糊——在对无论何种话语的要旨(purport)的讨论中,这都是一种重要...

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