This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Biology Review

5482 words - 22 pages

Review Biology Test #1
Chapter 3: Water and life
• Polar covalent bonds in water result in Hydrogen bonding between the molecules. These bonds give water its special properties
• In presence of water, ionic bonds are weak and covalent bonds are strong. Without water, ionic bonds are stronger.
• Each water molecule can make 4 hydrogen bonds.
• Water properties:
1. Polarity
2. Surface tension
3. Cohesion
4. Adhesion
5. Capilarity
6. High specific heat
7. Heat bank
8. Heat of vaporization allows evaporation cooling.
9. Abundant and versatile solvent
10. Solid is less dense than liquid
11. It is a reactant and a product in many biological reactions (Photosynthesis, dehydration ...view middle of the document...

• pH lower than 7 à acidic, pH higher than 7à basic
• Each pH unit represents a tenth fold difference in the concentration of the ions. (Ex: a solution of pH 3 is not twice as acidic as one of pH 6, it is a thousand times (10·10·10) more acidic)
• The internal pH of cells is close to 7. Changes in pH can be fatal because chemical processes are very sensitive to them.
• Buffers: Substances that minimize changes in the concentrations of H+ and OH-. Most buffers contain weak bases and acids which combine reversibly (Ex: carbonic acid)

Chapter 4: Carbon and the molecular diversity
I. Organic chemistry: study of carbon compounds
• Carbon enters the biosphere through the action of photosynthetic organisms.
• Organic compounds: Compounds containing carbon
• Inorganic compounds include salts, H2O, CO2…
• Friedrich Wohler: German chemist that accidentally made urea in the laboratory by trying to mix ammonium ions and cyanate ions.
• Stanley Miller: In 1953, he set up a closed system to imitate the conditions of the early Earth and concluded that complex organic molecules can arise spontaneously under certain conditions à A theory about the origin of life on Earth.
• The experiments of these chemists invalided the concept of vitalism by demonstrating that organic molecules can be produced using inorganic materials.
• Carbon atoms can form diverse molecules by bonding to four other atoms.
• Electron configuration – key to chemical properties.
• Carbon has 6 electrons total; it has four valence electrons; it can make up to four bonds.
• The four major atomic components of organic molecules are carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen. Sulfur and Phosphate are also very common.
• Hydrocarbons: Organic molecules consisting only of carbon and hydrogen. Nonpolar, they can release a lot of energy.
• Isomers: Variations in the architecture of organic molecules that have the same number of the same atoms. These variations give different properties.
1. Structural isomers: Differ in covalent arrangements of the atoms or locations of double bonds.
2. Cis-trans isomers: Covalent bonds to same atoms but arranged spatially different due to the inflexibility of double bonds. (cis: same on one side, trans: same on opposite sides)
3. Enantiomers: Isomers that are mirror images of each other and that differ in shape due to an asymmetric carbon.
II. A few chemical groups are key to chemical function
• The properties of organic molecules depend on the atom arrangement and on chemical groups called functional groups which interact in chemical reactions and give each molecule a specific shape and function.
• Most important functional groups:
Hydroxyl (-OH):
-Polar, Forms H-bonds, They are known as Alcohols, Hydrophilic, Ex: Ethanol, Propanol…

Carbonyl (C=O):

Polar, It may be within the molecule (ketone) or in the end (aldehyde), Hydrophilic, Ex: Acetone, Propanal…

Carboxyl (-COOH):
Acts as an acid (donates H), Ionized form (-COO-), It can...

Other Papers Like Biology Review

Herbert Spencer Essay

930 words - 4 pages Jessie Reeder DE Sociology Spring 2011 Herbert Spencer There are numerous people who study sociology in our world. One of the most famous is Herbert Spencer. Herbert Spencer’s early life influenced a lot of his accomplishments. Not only did he study the subject of sociology, but he wrote several books stating his views and opinions on this subject as well as biology, ethics, and politics. Spencer made a lot of contributions to the

Biology Cell Study Essay

853 words - 4 pages Introduction Daniel Carlson Biology Lab In a laboratory it is important to use the scientific methods. After a hypothesis has been created, it is time to test the prediction. If the results of the experiments are plausible, the hypothesis is then adapted to connect with the experiment. The objectives of this lab are to focus on cell replication.. In Section I, the “Health and Safety Review” section will give you guidelines to avoid any

Biology Study Guide

678 words - 3 pages Biology 10 Study Guide #1 1. List some of the characteristics that distinguish living from non-living things. 2. Outline the basic steps of inquiry included in the scientific method. 3. What is the difference between a hypothesis, a theory and an opinion? 4. What is homeostasis? 5. Be able to summarize the basic idea represented by each of the 10 majors themes that form the cornerstones for understanding Biology. Be able

Fundamentals of Pharmacology Lecture 1

863 words - 4 pages Pharmacokinetics vs pharmacodynamics * * What is a Drug Most broad definition: chemical entity that affects a living protoplasm Difference between drug and medicine Medicine is a kind of drug – used to treat, cure, prevent or diagnose disease What is Pharmacology Study of drugs and medicine Very broad Includes chemistry, biology, biochemistry, physiology, pathology, pathophysiology, molecular biology, enzymology, genetics

Educ-7004-1 Foundations: Teacher Leadership

1045 words - 5 pages . Today’s online universities have developed new strategies for determining how to access the credibility of an information source, by creating their own library, which contains’ credible sources. I. Initial Appraisal A. Author The author is Traci Hong; she has a PhD of Communication, M.A. of Communication and B.A, double major; Communication and Biology. Hong’s work is peer reviewed; she has recieved feedback from other professors in the

Health & Social

1173 words - 5 pages 1949, David graduated from South High School in Youngstown. In 1953, Weikart graduated from the Oberlin College in Oberlin, Ohio, with a major in psychology and a minor in zoology. While attending college, Weikart worked as a counsellor and a program director at a YMCA camp in Rochester, New York. While teaching English and biology at Canfield High School in Ohio, Weikart began taking courses in education at Youngstown University in the spring

Admission

9908 words - 40 pages for January/February and June admission as soon as the review of their applications is complete. For detailed information on how to apply, please see page 23. Standardized Tests Only official GRE, TOEFL or IELTS score reports are accepted. Photocopies of reports cannot be used under any circumstances. The MIT reporting code is 3514. Departmental codes, where available, are listed with departmental information beginning on page 4 of this booklet

Critical Thinking

3325 words - 14 pages manifest or incorporate higher learning? Literature Review The first article I read was “The Role of Critical Thinking Skills and Learning Styles of University Students in Their Academic Performance” and was written by Zhore Ghazivakili and other members of the Advances in Medical Education & Professionalism. This article calls for or illustrates its focus on our different approaches or ways that we learn and how that plays a part in our

Two Kinds of Sex Pheromones in Lysmata Shrimps

1876 words - 8 pages Sex pheromones in Lysmata shrimps Rui Yang BIO4995 Undergraduate Research Advisor: Dr. Junda Lin July 30, 2010 Introduction Many crustaceans species, such as crabs (Ryan 1966; Gleeson 1980; Seifert 1982; Hardege et al. 2002; Kamio et al. 2002), lobsters (Atema 1984 for a review), and crayfish (Ameyaw-Akumn and Hazlett 1975; Tierney et al. 1984), copulate with the females using chemical compounds as sex attractants. Pheromones as a kind of

Data Collection

665 words - 3 pages Data Collection Chris Oakley SS3150 Angela Givens Create electronics for use in marine biology that can help us understand what lives in the oceans of the world. How much do we know about what lives in the oceans? In what ways can electronics be used to explore the underwater world? Is using electronics the best way to explore the oceans? I believe that the use of electronics will be instrumental in our exploration of the world’s oceans

What Causes Homosexual Desire?

4323 words - 18 pages                                                                                                                               4 Introduction                                                                                                                                   5 Review of Literature                                                                                                                 6 - 10 * Psychology and Biology                                                                                               6 - 7 * Social

Related Essays

Cell Biology Review

3328 words - 14 pages SUMMARY CBH Ex I CELLS AND ORGANELLES Cell Membrane: consist of a lipid bilayer. Hydrophobic tails are located in the interior. Transmembrane protiens are anchored to the core of the bilayer and can be removed only by detergents that disrupt the bilayer. Peripheral membrane proteins are attatched to the cell surface electrostatically and are easily removed by altering the pH. Eucaryotic cells with outer- and intra- cellular membranes

Emerging Technology Essay

1377 words - 6 pages Review. February 2004. Technology Review Inc.Gravitz, Lauren. Synthetic Biology. Technology Review. February 2004. Technology Review Inc.Huang, Gregory T. Universal Translation. Technology Review. February 2004. Technology Review Inc.Savage, Neil. T-rays. Technology Review. February 2004. Technology Review Inc.

Enlgish Essay

3364 words - 14 pages of your lab. |   | Duration: 20 min | Scoring: 15 | Points Earned: _____ | Lesson 5.5: Human Biology Wrap-Up | Activity 5.5.1: Review - Unit Review | Prepare for the unit test by reviewing key concepts and skills. |   | Duration: 30 min |   |   | Activity 5.5.2: Test (CST) - Computer-Scored Unit Test | Take a computer-scored test to assess what you have learned in this unit. |   | Duration: 1 hr | Scoring: 50 | Points

Ap Biology Essay

2581 words - 11 pages AP Biology Summer Independent Study Packet Directions: As you carefully read through chapters 1-7 in your Campbell Biology textbook, thoughtfully respond to each of the following questions. It is important that you actually read the chapters for review and understanding. Do not just look for answers to the questions provided. Review all diagrams provided. The majority of the material in these beginning chapters should be a review for you. If