This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Biology Dna Notes Essay

951 words - 4 pages

Biology notes- DNA
Structure of DNA
Nucleotide structure
Individual nucleotides of DNA are made up of three components:
A sugar called deoxyribose
A phosphate group
An organic base belonging to one of two different groups:
A single ring bases- cytosine and thymine
Double ring bases- adenine and guanine
The sugar, phosphate group and organic base are combined as a result of condensation reactions, to give a single nucleotide.
DNA structure
DNA is made up of two strands of nucleotides. Each of the two strands is extremely long, and they are joined together by hydrogen bonds formed between certain bases.
In its simplified form, DNA can be thought of as a ladder, in which the ...view middle of the document...

The triplet code
What is a gene
Genes are sections of DNA that contain the coded information for making polypeptides.
The coded information is in the form of a specific sequence of bases along the DNA molecule.
Polypeptides combine to make proteins and so genes determine the proteins of an organism
A gene is a sequence of DNA bases that determines a polypeptide and a polypeptide is a sequence of amino acids.
The triplet code
Only 20 amino acids regularly occur in proteins
Each amino acid must have its own code of bases on the DNA
Only four different bases are present in DNA
As there are 64 possible codes and only 20 amino acid it follows that some amino acids have more than one code.
In eukaryotes much of the nuclear DNA does not code for amino acids.
These sections are called introns and can occur within genes and as multiple repeats between genes.
Features of the triplet code
A few amino acid have only a single triplet code
The remaining amino acid have between two and six triplet codes each
The code is known as the degenerate code because most amino acids have more than one triplet code
The triplet code is always read in one particular direction along the DNA strand
The start of the sequence is always the same triplet code, this codes fro the amino acid methionine. If this methionine molecule does not form part of the final polypeptide it is later removed.
Three triplet codes do not code for any amino acid. These are called stop codes and mark the end of a polypeptide chain
The code is non overlapping i.e. Each base in the sequence is only read once
The code is universal

DNA and chromosomes
Chromosome structure
In prokaryotic cells, e.g. Bacteria the DNA molecules are smaller, and form a circle and are not associated with protein...

Other Papers Like Biology Dna Notes

Altered Phys Essay

5240 words - 21 pages Altered Phys. Notes Lecture 1: (September 17, 2015) What does physiology mean? * Normal function of a living thing, human cell, tissue, organ , system What is Pathophysiology? * Abnormal function caused by an adverse event/stimulus * The event can be mechanical/chemical/radiation/etc. * It has a negative impact on function How relevant is A&P to Patho? * Pretty relevant * You know when something is wrong with the

Microbiology Essay

4585 words - 19 pages Biology 119, Spring 2015 Review sheet for Exam 1 The exam is worth 100 points total. It will consist of approximately 47 multiple-choice questions worth 2 point each and 3-4 short essay questions. Bring a scantron and pencil to the exam. The best way to study is to review the posted lecture notes. I suggest printing of a blank copy and filling them in referring to your book and notes as little as possible. Continue this process until you can

Evolution From A Molecular Perspective

3549 words - 15 pages ;, Molecular Biology and Evolution      Chicago: University of Chicago, 1983 Mammrack, Mark. Biology 112 Lecture Notes. Ohio: Wright State, 1996 Wysong, Randy. The Creation-Evolution Controversy. Michigan: Inquiry Press, 1978 Lasker, Gabriel. Human Evolution. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, Inc., 1963 Campbell, Neil. Biology Second Edition. California: The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing       Company


2057 words - 9 pages Chp 15 Notes Defining Psychological Disorders Psychological disorder - a syndrome marked by a clinically significant disturbance in an individual’s cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior Disturbed, or dysfunctional thoughts, emotions, or behaviors are maladaptive - they interfere with normal day-to-day life. Understanding Psychological Disorders Medical Model Brutal treatments may worsen, rather than improve, mental health

Freedom And Responsibility

2141 words - 9 pages Built within the Constitution of the United States are specifically defined freedoms that are guaranteed to all citizens. Conversely, with every constitutional freedom there comes a corresponding responsibility. On September 25, 1789, the state legislature’s twelve proposed amendments were transmitted by congress, the first two dealing with congressional representation and congressional pay. The following numbers three through twelve were

Hate Crime Laws

2348 words - 10 pages On June 7, 1998, 49-year-old James Byrd Jr. of Texas accepted a ride from three white men, who then beat him severely, urinated on him, chained him by his ankles to the back of their pick-up truck, dragged him for three miles into the countryside, and dumped his corpse in front of an African-American cemetery (Graczyk). A little over a year later, a jury sentenced ring leader John King to death by lethal injection (“Man Executed for Dragging

Rational Emotional Behavior Therapy Case Study Conceptualization And Treatment Plan

2140 words - 9 pages Rational Emotional Behavior Therapy Case Study of Sarah: A Conceptualization and Treatment Plan Rational emotive behavior therapy, REBT, was developed by Albert Ellis and holds the central belief that the events in our lives do not cause our disturbances but that they are instead caused by our view of the events (Murdock, 2009). Murdock (2009) states that “people are seen as responsible for their behavior” (p. 279) but, because they are

Holidays In Albania

1636 words - 7 pages Have you ever thought about having exciting and incredibly cheap vacations? Albania might be the right choice. According to My Travel Guide, Albania is ranked the fourth among ten places worth visiting in Eastern Europe (“Top 10 Eastern European Destinations”). One can encounter three kinds of vacations in this Mediterranean country: winter, summer, and cultural. The ideal places to spend your winter vacations are the Albanian Alps. They are

A Heart Of Darkness

1748 words - 7 pages In this short story, there are frequent significant subject and ideas that make the story, "A Heart of Darkness," by Joseph Conrad, and haunting novel. The main theme is absolute white power over the natives. The theme validates the corruption, and the dependence caused by the white people as they took over the Congo. White men were giving all the power; they had no self-control, and in the end they did not use wisely. The white men became

The Aspects Of Vulnerability Among The Exploited In Medical Research

2287 words - 10 pages Essentially, everyone is in some state of vulnerability. However, some of us are more susceptible to harm due to our vulnerabilities. The susceptible are the individuals with the greatest risk. These individuals risk the loss of their autonomy, and maybe even their lives. Vulnerable populations can be found in every subset of society. However, as previously mentioned, there are some vulnerable populations that are at an even greater risk than

The Hitchhiker’S Guide To The Galaxy

1171 words - 5 pages The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy As the human race makes life-changing discoveries, it is made apparent that there is always more to learn as the universe, instead of becoming familiar, is becoming absurd. The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy, written by Douglas Adams, as well as the 2005 film adaption, portrays absurdity to be an all-encompassing system in the universe. Through the introduction and attempt to understand lack of reason, the

Related Essays

Antibody Diversity Mechanism Essay

1223 words - 5 pages later discarded (Watson et al., 2008). Works Cited Alberts, B., Johnson, A., Lewis, J., Raff, M., Roberts, K., & Walter, P. (2002). Molecular Biology of the Cell, 4th edition. New York: Garland Science. Retrieved from Generation of Ab Diversity. (n.d.). Retrieved by December 12, 2013 from, G. (2009

Forensic Misconduct Essay

1659 words - 7 pages notes concluded that the secretor of the semen had type A blood; however in her official report and later her testimony, she falsely testified that she was unable to complete the test because the biological sample was too small to test. In 1997, under a new law granting him the right to seek DNA testing, Willis filed a petition. Prosecutors claimed that the biological evidence had been lost, but was later found. The DNA sample was tested and

Gametogenesis Essay

1876 words - 8 pages , (Last accessed 30/04/2012) BBC Health (2007) Fertility treatment, (Last accessed 03/05/2012) B.Margaret, R.M (2001), A2 Human Biology, Hodder & Stoughton, ISBN 0-340-80245-6 MedicineNet, (2000) Definition of Gametogenesis,, (Last accessed 1/05/2012) Noble Prize, (2012) DNA-RNA-Protein,, (Last accessed 01/05/2012) News Medical, (2012) What is RNA,, (Last accessed 02/05/2012) O'Shea. Rod, (2012) Class Notes

Remember An Event Essay

1066 words - 5 pages Biology, and Mrs. Burtis-Taylor pounded them with notes. When I made it to class I was late, and I didn’t even care about being late. It was my first day in her class so I assumed that everything was going to be okay and boy was I wrong. “Why are you late Mr. Freeman and why isn’t your shirt tucked in”? Mrs. Burtis-Taylor shouted. Her voice was so sharp that it made me freeze for about a second, and I quickly scampered to my seat and put my shirt