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Biology Anatomy And Physiology Essay

2189 words - 9 pages

Chapter 4: Tissues

© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Tissues
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Types of tissues Epithelial tissue Connective tissue Membranes Muscular tissue Nervous tissue Tissue repair: restoring homeostasis Aging and tissues

© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Types of Tissues

A tissue is a group of similar cells that usually has a similar embryological origin and is specialized for a particular function. The various tissues of the body are classified into four basic types: epithelial tissue, connective tissue, muscular tissue, and nervous tissue. Epithelial tissue (eṕ -i-THĒ-lē-al) covers body surfaces; lines body cavities, hollow ...view middle of the document...

Epithelial Tissue

© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Epithelial Tissue

© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Epithelial Tissue

© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Epithelial Tissue

© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Epithelial Tissue

© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Epithelial Tissue

© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Epithelial Tissue

The general types of epithelial tissue (epithelium) include covering and lining epithelium and glandular epithelium. Epithelium has the following general characteristics: It consists mostly of cells with little extracellular material, is arranged in sheets, is attached to connective tissue by a basement membrane, is avascular (no blood vessels), has a nerve supply, and can replace itself. Epithelial layers can be simple (one layer) or stratified (several layers). The cell shapes may be squamous (flat), cuboidal (cubelike), columnar (rectangular), or transitional (variable). Simple squamous epithelium consists of a single layer of flat cells (Table 4.1A). It is found in parts of the body where filtration or diffusion are priority processes. One type, endothelium, lines the heart and blood vessels. Another type, mesothelium, forms the serous membranes that line the thoracic and abdominal cavities and cover the organs within them.

© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Epithelial Tissue

Simple cuboidal epithelium consists of a single layer of cube-shaped cells that function in secretion and absorption (Table 4.1B). It is found covering the ovaries, in the kidneys and eyes, and lining some glandular ducts. Nonciliated simple columnar epithelium consists of a single layer of nonciliated rectangular cells (Table 4.1C). It lines most of the gastrointestinal tract. Specialized cells containing microvilli perform absorption. Goblet cells secrete mucus. Ciliated simple columnar epithelium consists of a single layer of ciliated rectangular cells (Table 4.1D). It is found in a few portions of the upper respiratory tract, where it moves foreign particles trapped in mucus out of the respiratory tract.

© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Epithelial Tissue

Pseudostratified columnar epithelium has only one layer but gives the appearance of many (Table 4.1E). The ciliated variety moves mucus in the respiratory tract. The nonciliated variety functions in absorption and protection. Stratified squamous epithelium consists of several layers of cells; cells in the apical layer and several layers deep to it are flat (Table 4.1F). It is protective. A nonkeratinized variety lines the mouth; a keratinized variety forms the epidermis, the most superficial layer of the skin. Stratified cuboidal epithelium consists of several layers of cells; cells in the apical layer are cubeshaped (Table 4.1G). It is found in adult...

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