Research Skills 3: Using sources in your writing – paraphrasing and in-text references
In this lesson you will find out about:
* what you can use from sources in your writing
* how to paraphrase
* how to make a basic in-text reference
From your reading of the sources, discuss with a partner some of the themes or topics you think you could include in your Practice 1 Assignment, which has the following title:
Discuss the influence of the internet on teenagers and young adults. Support your argument with examples and evidence.
From talking to your partner, do you have any new thoughts about what you could include in your essay?
What you can use from sources in ...view middle of the document...
g., can you find any statistics or problems?)
The latest ONS Family Spending Survey, published last month, analysed the income and expenditure of more than 11,000 households across the UK. The data was collected in 2011. The charity, E-Learning Foundation, extracted the data on computer ownership and internet access for families with children aged under 18.Overall, most children (89%) can get on to the internet via a computer at home but according to E-Learning Foundation this figure masks a divide between rich and poor.A book called Teenagers and Technology, from Oxford University's Department of Education, and published this month, highlights the ways in which teenagers without an internet connection feel shut out from their peer group and disadvantaged in their studies. The authors of Teenagers and Technology also found that parental fears about teenage time-wasting on social network sites were often unfounded with the benefits using digital technologies outweighing perceived risks.E-Learning's Valerie Thompson said imaginative use of technology by schools could help overcome the educational disadvantages suffered by children on free school meals, a key indicator of poverty. "Technology can underpin learning by making it more relevant and personalised," she said. "It can also help children with special educational needs, particularly those who struggle to cope in a normal, classroom, helping them learn and complete work at their own pace.(Adapted from: Burns, J. (2013) A third of poorest pupils 'without internet at home' BBC News [online], 4 January. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/education-20899109) |
How to use a source: quotation, paraphrase and summary (E)
As discussed in previous lessons, there are different ways to use a source in your writing, which you should be able to use appropriately if you want to demonstrate that you are an effective academic writer.
Activity 2 (E)
Read the following extract, and using your own words, try to answer the following questions:
1. Why do you need to use sources in your academic writing?
2. What does the writer mean by saying that you need to “acknowledge… another writer’s work”?
3. What is the difference between quotation, paraphrase and summary?
(from Espinosa, Hancock & Walsh, 2012, Language for Study Level 1, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)
In-text citations (E)
As the paragraph above states, in academic writing it is essential to give a citation to the source of your ideas and information. This means you need to provide a reference to the source in the sentence where you use the ideas or information.
Activity 3 (E)
In the sentences below from a report by Chan and Fang (2007) on internet use, underline the in-text citations. Where in the sentence do you find these citations?
1. Male respondents are found to use internet more frequently than female respondents for playing games. This finding is consistent with previous studies (Gross, 2004).
2. Some boys...