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Bio 101 Family Tree Essay

974 words - 4 pages

The British Royal Family

• Eye color
Brown eyes are generally dominant over other colors, but eye color is a complex trait that involves several genes. Two parents with the same color eyes will not necessarily have a child with the same color eyes. However, the vast majority of the members of the royal family have blue eyes, besides only Kate Middleton with green eyes, Princess Beatrice and Princess Eugenie with hazel eyes, and Mark Phillips with brown eyes.

• Hair
Not much is known about the genetics behind male pattern baldness. Since it's a common condition that 50% of men in their 50s suffer from, researchers have discovered that it's not important whether or not men ...view middle of the document...

Queen Victoria herself was a carrier of this X-linked blood-clotting disorder, which at the time was untreatable in the affected males. Only a few hemophiliacs survived to reproductive age, because any external cut or internal bleeding after a bruise could be fatal. One of Victoria's sons, Leopold, died of it.

• Earlobes
Attached vs. detached earlobes is another single-gene trait. Detached earlobes are dominant, and 13 out of 21 members of the royal family have attached earlobes.

WW= widow's peak (dominant)
Ww= widow's peak (dominant)
ww= no widow's peak (recessive)

RR= detached earlobes (dominant)
Rr= detached earlobes (dominant)
rr= attached earlobes (recessive)

Summarize the inheritance of sex-linked traits through meiosis and how it relates to genetics.
Sex-Linked Traits
Sex-linked traits are genetic characteristics determined by genes located on sex chromosomes. Genes are segments of DNA found on chromosomes that carry information for protein production and that are responsible for the inheritance of specific traits. Genes exist in alternative forms called alleles. One allele for a trait is inherited from each parent. Like traits originating from genes on autosomes (non-sex chromosomes), sex-linked traits are passed from parents to offspring through sexual reproduction.

In this family the grandparents have 3 children (2 daughters and a son). All three kids are born with brown eyes even though the grandmother has blue eyes. Interestingly, when one of the daughters has kids with a man that also has brown eyes, one of their sons ends up with blue eyes. Finally, when that son has kids with a blue-eyed woman, all the children have blue eyes.

Family similarities occur because we inherit traits from our parents (in the form of the genes that contribute to the traits). This passing of genes from one generation to the next is called heredity. Simple organisms pass on genes by duplicating their genetic information and then...

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