UNIVERSITI TUNKU ABDUL RAHMAN
FACULTY OF ARTS AND SOCIAL SCIENCE
BACHELOR OF ARTS (HONS) ENGLISH EDUCATION
ACADEMIC YEAR: 201501
UALL 2004 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS
Topic 4: Briefly describe the varieties of bilingualism. Compare two kinds of bilingualism highlighting the similarities, differences and the process involved : Early Bilingualism vs Late Bilingualism.
Name | ID. Number |
Chu Pui Ling | 1205732 |
Leong Zi Xin | 1202601 |
Lim Jessie | 1202511 |
Voon Xin Jie | 1201936 |
Year/Semester : Year 2 Sem 3
Tutorial Group : Tutorial 1
Lecturer’s Name : Mr.Renu a/l Kailsan
Tutor’s Name : ...view middle of the document...
The strategies they used in order for themselves to acquire the second language are always different from others.
Compare and Contrast Early Bilinguals and Late Bilinguals
According to Hernandez et al. (2005) argues that the factors that bring to the differences in the developmental processes are the (1) brain plasticity and (2) first language entrenchment.
For those who having early bilinguals were exposed to two languages infancy. Therefore, two different languages will be processed during their preverbal development time as they have spent a considerable amount of time exposing to the two languages. By the time early bilinguals begin producing language. This early bilingual exposure facilitates their ability to keep both languages separately.(Hernandez et al., 2005). For instance, early in development, children’s exposure to their language is represented neurologically as sounds (Kalia, V et al., 2014).
On the other hand, late bilinguals refer to those who only acquire their second language after their first language has already created an intricate lexical (sound), syntactic (rules of use) and semantic (word meanings) neural network (Kalia, V et al., 2014). As this network implanted deeply in late bilinguals, they will become more easily and more automatically in using their first language. In effect, in order to let late bilinguals to achieve a separate network, they must recruit other cognitive skills or use various strategies to help reduce the parasitic dependence of their L2 on their L1.
Argumentations of Strenghts and Weaknesses of Early and Late Bilingualism
A research of one hundred and five participants (42 monolinguals, 40 early bilinguals and 23 late bilinguals) has conducted by Vrinda Kalia , Makeba Parramore Wilbourn, and Kathleen Ghio to determine whether early and late bilinguals vary from one another .
According to Vrinda et al. , previous researches have largely overlooked the cognitive implications of becoming bilingual later in development (i.e. late bilinguals). Late bilinguals, for example, may not only differ from early bilinguals in terms of proficiency in both of their languages but also differ in neural organisation. More specifically, Mechelli et al. (2004) found that early bilinguals had greater densities of grey matter in the inferior parietal area of the left and right hemispheres relative to late bilinguals. This research also revealed that bilinguals’ proficiency in their second language was negatively correlated with the age at which they acquired it, yet positively correlated with their grey matter density. Thus, late bilinguals were more likely to have less grey matter than early bilinguals and be less proficient in their second language.
According to the critical period hypothesis (Johnson & Newport, 1989),differential outcomes for early and late bilinguals occur because late bilinguals do not acquire native-like proficiency...