This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Behaviorism Essay

1286 words - 6 pages

February 1, 2015

Abstract
The theory of behaviorism is that human and animal behavior can be explained in terms of conditioning without any preconceived thought, but it can be defined by observable behavior that is researched. Behaviorism projects that individuals are products of their experiences and have become who they are because of conditioning. John Watson, who is credited with Behaviorism, made the comment that he could take “twelve healthy infants and take any one of them and mold them into any given occupation regardless of genetics, race, talents and/or abilities.”(Jenson, 2014) Watson felt that conditioning was a crucial part of behaviorism, as it was an extension of ...view middle of the document...

In earlier forms of psychology, mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter (Moore, 2011). In 1913, John Watson delivered a lecture on “Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It” at a meeting for the American Psychological Association at Columbia University. Upon his presentation, he was considered as brilliant for this body of work. According to Watson, behaviorism offered a
“purely American solution to problems of employee selection, human adjustment, and industrial relations. It allowed businessmen to match employees to jobs; if necessary, it could show how the individual may be molded (forced to put on new habits) to fit the environment (Harris, 2010).”
Behaviorism is also associated with B.F. Skinner, who made his reputation by testing Watson's theories in the laboratory. Skinner ultimately rejected Watson's almost exclusive emphasis on reflexes and conditioning. Skinner believed that people respond to their environment, but they also operate on the environment to produce certain consequences ("Behaviorism Theory Overview").

The Main Components of Behaviorism and the Experiments
Behaviorism has been determined to have two assumptions that define the theory. They are classical conditioning, and operant conditioning. Behaviorism is strongly based on stimulus and response and the learner starts of with a clean slate (also known as tabula rasa). The behavior of the learner can be shaped by positive and negative reinforcement, and positive and negative punishment. Three of the main contributors to behaviorism are: John Watson, Ivan Pavlov, and B.F. Skinner.
Watson put the emphasis on external behavior of people and their reactions on given situations, rather than the internal, mental state of those people. In his opinion, the analysis of behaviors and reactions was the only objective method to get insight in the human actions. Watson had conducted the “Baby Albert” experiment where an infant had learned to be afraid of a rat by a loud sound. Watson believed that humans had three emotions of fear, rage, and love and adults were created due to the conditioning of different life stimuli. Ivan Pavlov’s work on classical conditioning was adapted by John Watson after Watson’s experiments with a child named Albert reflected that this personality was conditioned by various reflexes.
Ivan Pavlov is most famous for the classical conditioning in dogs. Pavlov stumbled across one of the two major principles of learning that now characterize behaviorism. His research was designed to uncover the neural mechanisms associated with digestion; while conducting his experiments, however, he noticed that his subjects, the dogs, began salivating not just in response to the food, but also in response to other environmental cues, such as the lab attendants who brought the food (Kretchmar, 2008). As Mazur (1994) writes, "Pavlov recognized the significance of...

Other Papers Like Behaviorism

Behaviorism V. Psychoanalysis

913 words - 4 pages eximined through the examples of Behaviorism and Psycoanalysis. Two different examples of psychology. Behaviorism and psycoanalisis both have evolved out of unique social and intellectual cvontexts. Psychoanalisis is arguably the most influential system of psychology. It was pioneered by Sigmond Freud in Vienna during the 19th century. During this time various social trends were in operation. These were the creation of the German School, anti

The Understthe Understanding Behind Behaviorismanding Behind Behaviorism

763 words - 4 pages Behaviorism is associated with many scientists in the past and our current society today. Behaviorism is a learning theory based on the thought that all behavior attain when conditioned is considered behaviorism. Also, behaviorism is the scientific study of observable behavior. Behaviorism is more interested with behavior than with feeling or knowing. The main focus is the objective and observable components of behavior. The

Behaviorism Paper PSY 310 Week 3

1100 words - 5 pages  Behaviorism: Major Influences Stephanie Hoffer, Christina Depace, Martha Moler, Sara Reno PSY/310 September 14, 2015 Jason Etchegaray Behaviorism: Major Influences Behaviorism is a theory within psychology, which suggests that behaviors are learned through positive and negative reinforcements. Behaviorists are concerned with observable behavior rather than relying on introspective methods because they believe external behavior

Behaviorism and Its Effect on the Understand of Leaning

804 words - 4 pages Abstract This paper summarize behaviorism and how it has affected the understanding of learning. It includes a brief history of the founding of behaviorism. The main component of behaviorism learn theory are explored. Pavlov, Watson and Skinners experiments are briefly discussed as well as how behaviorism develops new behaviors.   Behaviorism and Its Effect on the Understand of Leaning Behaviorism has many definitions but all have one

Aspects of Psychology Unit1 Ip

941 words - 4 pages Aspects of Psychology Arnecia Anderson American Intercontinental University Aspects of Psychology In this assignment we were to get a healthier understanding about psychology. In this paper I chose three perspectives to research. The three perspectives I chose were Behaviorism, Cognitive, and Psychodynamic theories .I answered questions relating to the perspectives such as, how they are even related to today’s Psychology .I

Cognitive Psychology Defined

1035 words - 5 pages began to emerge during the 1950s, partly as a response to behaviorism (Mcleod, 2011). Critics of behaviorism noted that it failed to account for how internal processes impacted behavior. This period of time is sometimes referred to as the "cognitive revolution" as a wealth of research on topics such as information processing, language, memory and perception began to emerge. The core focus of cognitive psychology is on how people acquire

Learning Perspectives

715 words - 3 pages Learning Perspectives Lynnette Sharrer Grand Canyon University EDU 313 N June 3, 2012 Learning perspectives can be generalized into three groups; cognitive psychology, behaviorism, and social cognitive theory. The main focus of learning differs between the three perspectives, but they are similar in some ways and complement each other, which helps teachers build successful learning classrooms. According to Omrod (2011, pg. 356

Psychology

842 words - 4 pages Humanistic, Cultural Diversity and Behaviorism Kathy Fletcher American Inter-Continental University Abstract The word psychology originates from the Greek word psyche, meaning soul or mind. Psychology is the study of the human mind and behavior. There are many perspectives in the world of psychology and all of them affect the way we live our lives. The first psychology lab is credited to Wilhelm Wundt who was instrumental in the modern

Cognition

1046 words - 5 pages Cognitive Psychology PSY/360 Cognitive Psychology From the 1920s to the late 1950s behaviorist dominated experimental psychology in the United States. This trend continued until individuals began to question whether behaviorism could accomplish what it had pledged. Individuals started to view behaviorism as “one which failed to provide any coherent characterization of cognitive processes such as thinking, language and

Evolution of Cognitive Psychology

1769 words - 8 pages and purposes of thoughts and the mind in general rather than just the different structures of the brain. Behaviorism also began developing with functionalism and structuralism. Behaviorism used scientific study to develop; requiring observation, measurement, and repeatability for the study of psychology. Behaviorists believed that consciousness could not be observed, measured, and repeated in a way that could be scientifically studied. Instead

Foundations of Psychology

1027 words - 5 pages , 2003). Behaviorism Behaviorism developed an influential accepted philosophy constructed upon the theories of intellectuals like Ivan Pavlov, John Watson, and B.F. Skinner proposals that behaviorism is rationalized by environmental affects preferably than by intramural influence. Behaviorism is determined on visible behaviorism and the conjectures of guidance in addition to

Related Essays

Behaviorism Essay

1706 words - 7 pages noticed or feel what teachers should do when it pertains to the student and their education. Behaviorism in the psychology sense is a movement in psychology and philosophy that emphasized the outward behavioral aspects of thought and dismissed the inward experiential, and sometimes the inner procedural aspects. Behaviorism in the educational sense is primarily concerned with observable and measurable aspects of human behavior. In defining

Behaviorism Essay

781 words - 4 pages Understanding Learning Through Behaviorism History Behaviorism started earlier works with a Russian physiologist named Ivan Pavlov. J.B Watson was one of the theories credited for his founding of the behavioral movement. B.F. Skinner played a major rule in the behavioral movement and is known for his research on operant conditioning and negative reinforcement. He developed a device called the "cumulative recorder," it showed

Behaviorism Essay

1380 words - 6 pages Behaviorism: How We Learn by Doing and The Effects it Has On Teaching New Behaviors Tina Marie Saunders American Intercontinental University February 1, 2015 Abstract In this paper, I will show how behaviorist theories have shaped and molded new behaviors. I will talk about the origins and a central component of each action theory, including Classical Conditioning, Law of Effect, and Operant Conditioning. Both Classical condition and

Behaviorism Essay 536 Words

536 words - 3 pages Assignment #4: Behaviorism Chasity K. Horton March 3, 2011 Development of Lifespan EDPR 2111-008 ABSTRACT The article I have chosen to review is titled Children Learn by Monkey See, Monkey Do. Chimps Don’t. (Zimmer, 2005). The topic of the article is Derek Lyons, a graduate student at Yale University, was doing an observation over how children learn compared to chimpanzees. He observed a little girl by named Charlotte to help him with