Julia N. Tannehill
Apr 22, 2013
What we know about behavior is that it can be changed by learning. But, the sad thing is that it can be lost if we do not use these new develop skills. The way we learn is by seeing, touching, hearing, tasting, and smelling. Our five basic senses help us to experience change, without them learning would be difficult. There are three major theories that help contribute to the learning process, classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and neobehaviorism. Although they share some similarities, they are different when it comes to performance. Classical ...view middle of the document...
In the case of reinforcement, it refers to the weakening of a previously reinforced response when that response no longer produces reinforcers. The term extinction can refer either to the procedure (omission of the reinforcer) or the outcome (weakening of the response).
* Discrimination, differential responding to two stimuli. In classical conditioning, this can be achieved by discrimination training, in which one stimulus (CS+) is followed by a US but the second stimulus (CS-) is not.” (Lieberman, 2012).
Supporting Evidence B:
“Pavlovian conditioning can also be framed as a model-based learning process, in which the animal begins with a model of the possible structure of the world: the stimuli within it, and sets of possible contingencies that could exist between conditioned stimuli
and unconditioned stimuli, as well as assumptions about how these contingencies might change over time.” (McNamee & O'Doherty, 2013).
Supporting Evidence C:
“This article introduces a new 'real-time' model of classical conditioning that combines attentional, associative, and "flexible" configural mechanisms. In the model, attention to both conditioned (CS) and configural (CN) stimuli are modulated by the novelty detected in the environment. Novelty increases with the unpredicted presence or absence of any CS, unconditioned stimulus (US), or context. Attention regulates the magnitude of the associations CSs and CNs form with other CSs and the US. We incorporate a flexible configural mechanism in which attention to the CN stimuli increases only after the model has unsuccessfully attempted learn input-output combinations with CS-US associations. That is, CSs become associated with the US and other CSs on fewer trials than they do CNs. Because the CSs activate the CNs through unmodifiable connections, a CS can become directly and indirectly (through the CN) associated with the US or other CSs. In order to simulate timing processes, we simply assume that a CS is formed by a temporal spectrum of short-duration CSs that are activated by the nominal CS trace.” (Kutlu & Schmajuk, 2012).
III Body Paragraph #2: operant conditioning
Topic Sentence: Operant conditioning is when a way of learning through trail and error. operant conditioning is a type of learning in which behavioral consequences is control by the choices that are made. They could be good choices with a reward or bad choices with punishment. This type of learning can be defined by the relation between behavior of a person or animal and stimuli that accompanies the behavior. It was Burrhus Fredric Skinner who is best known for the operant conditioning and his invention, the Skinner Box. B. F. Skinner was an American psychologist who conducted work on behaviorism.
He believes that in order to change behavior, we must understand the environmental conditions that produce it. The out come will be either positive or negative with some type of change.
Supporting Evidence A: