This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Background Of Study: Schizophrenia Essay

1267 words - 6 pages

Background of Study
Jade Birkley
PSY480/Senior Project
February 14, 2013
Professor Eric Durbrow

Background of the Study
In a given year 2 million Americans and 25 million people worldwide suffer from one of the top ten most debilitating diseases. Schizophrenia is a long-term major mental disorder that affects several aspects of behavior, thinking, and emotion, which makes it difficult to tell between what is real and unreal; it is also characterized by positive and negative symptoms. Either being acute with a rapid beginning and good hopes of resurgence or a chronic longer term course that builds over time. Such variation in symptoms leads to observations of discord in patients.
...view middle of the document...

3). “In France Benedict Morel referred to such cases as démence précoce, while in Scotland, Clouston coined the term adolescent insanity” (Jablensky, 2010, para. 3). In Germany, Kahlbaum and his pupil Hecker had outlined and described catatonic syndrome and hebephrenia (today they are known as catatonic and disorganized schizophrenia).
However it was Emile Kraepelin and Eugene Bleuler that brought us closer to understanding the schizophrenic disorder. In 1893 Kraepelin a German physician, named the disorder dementia praecox which he had adopted from Morel’s term that described “a mental disorder which initially struck males when they were in their teens or were young adults” (Snowden, 2008, p. 444). Kraepelin also suggested integration of the various depictions into a single classification. “Kraepelin was the first to clarify objective descriptions and diagnostic criteria for the precursor to schizophrenia” (Snowden, 2008, p. 444). Kraepelin was trying to create a system of criteria to diagnose the disorder. This was because he noticed that major symptoms could be a part of different disorders, and they could not be diagnostic on their own. He believed schizophrenia was “a disease of the brain, identified by a common unique pattern of early onset (praecox) and inexorable decline (dementia)” (Snowden, 2008, p. 444).
Bleuler who was a Swiss Psychiatrist disagreed with Kraepelin’s solely biological construction and presented the term schizophrenia in 1911. Schizophrenia comes from Greek roots meaning split (schiz) mind (phren). Not to be confused with personality disorders, Bleuler “explained: I call dementia praecox “schizophrenia” because … the “splitting” of the different psychic functions is one of its most important characteristics” (Coleman, 2008). Through his work he also found that the disorder did not constantly end in dementia as Kraepelin had proposed, and presented a different set of diagnostic criteria. The four A’s: “flattened affect, ambivalence, autism (social relatedness deficit), and impaired association of ideas” (Snowden, 2008, p. 445).
However Kraepelin’s and Bleuler’s criteria were criticized for being too vague, although they were more customary in the U.S., and they formed the basis for schizophrenia in the DSM-I and DSM-II until 1980 when the DSM-III was published. This is when the DSM acquired new tactics to diagnosis because of the deficiency in uniformity that led to unclear diagnoses. The new approach was called neo-Kraepelinian and replaced old methods of diagnoses criteria “with specific inclusion and exclusion criteria” (Snowden, 2008, p.445). Kurt Schneider’s first rank symptoms and Feighner’s 6-month duration became the new set for diagnoses criteria.
With the combined efforts of researchers, five subtypes of schizophrenia are now recorded in the DSM-IV-TR: paranoid, disorganized, catatonic, residual, and undifferentiated. However, the first three put forward by Kraepelin haven’t proven to be...

Other Papers Like Background of Study: Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia Essay

1341 words - 6 pages Schizophrenia Almar Lim CNI College ADN Program NSG 265 Holistic Health Concepts Ms Shadia Maksemous RN, MSN February 4th, 2015 Schizophrenia is not a single disease, but a broad category of mental illnesses. Schizophrenia is a psychiatry disorder where several structural disturbances occur in the brain. It normally takes place in the temporal and frontal lobes, changing the neural systems and affecting the neurotransmitters in charge of

Schizophrenia Research Essay

2067 words - 9 pages unraveling the complex causes of the disease. Scientists are using many approaches from the study of molecular genetics to the study of populations to learn about schizophrenia. Methods of imaging the brain’s structure and function hold the promise of new insights into the disorder. THE STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM What are the causes of schizophrenia? THE SUB PROBLEM ❖ Genetic Factors Genetic Factors appear to play a role, as

Explain the Issues of Reliability and Validity in the Classification and Diagnosis of Schizophrenia

829 words - 4 pages -born American. Burnham et al (1987) looked at this using self-reports and interviewing, and checked the evidence. However no explanation could be found other than that culture had led to a difference. This was also the case in the study of Keith et al. (1991) who found that 2.1% of African–Americans are diagnosed with schizophrenia, compared with 1.4% of white Americans. However although these findings suggest culture bias, when adverse life

A Look At Schizophrenia

3547 words - 15 pages memory may serve as a key risk factor for early diagnosis of schizophrenia. These verbal impairments in explicit verbal learning tend to be associated with a poor long term outcome in all areas of everyday life (Green 1996).One study reported that negative symptoms tended to remain stable while psychotic symptoms and disorganization displayed noticeable changes over the two year evaluation span (Reichenberg, 2005). There tends to be a wide variety of

Racial Schizophrenia

897 words - 4 pages clinicians diagnosed schizophrenia in these African-American men, even though they were no sicker than whites. In this study, it showed the only apparent factor involved was race. In the past, during the civil-rights movement, as took place at Ionia, racial discrimination played a role in the over-diagnosis of schizophrenia in African-Americans. Just the simple fact of being African-American may present a different symptomatic picture of this


4929 words - 20 pages opposing responses (Marvel & Schwartz, 2004). People with Schizophrenia often display what is known as "inappropriate affect." This means that they show emotion that is totally random and inconsistent with their thoughts. There is no single cause of schizophrenia. Recent studies suggest that there are neural structures involved in the word selection aspect of the disorder. In one brain-imaging study, "the left inferior frontal cortex (IFC) was


3728 words - 15 pages relatives of schizophrenia to be 3.2 percent. Another strategy for examining whether schizophrenia is genetically transmitted, is to compare concordance rates among monozygotic (MZ) versus dizygotic (DZ) twins. Kendler, in 1983, reviewed the results of twin studies, and found a rate of concordance of approximately 53 percent for MZ and 15 percent for DZ pairs. Gottesman did a similar study in 1991, and found concordance rates of 46 percent for


1820 words - 8 pages Schizophrenia which affects approximately 1 percent of the population usually begins before age 25 and persists throughout life. The illness is a life long debilitating condition for about 40% of patients and is enormously costly in both social and economic terms. Despite the presence of delusions, hallucinations and cognitive impairment which characterize the illness, overall life expectancy is not altered (although there is a significantly

Schizophrenic Disorder Paper

2484 words - 10 pages precautionary measures used to treat the disease. The data collected revealed who amongst men, women, or children were more susceptible to the disorder. Although a there is not a known cure to terminate schizophrenia indefinitely, there are many alternatives to help control impulses. This review will shed light to the gruesome disease that haunts the lives of many vulnerable people. This study explores schizophrenic disorder

Schizophrenia - 2250 words

2250 words - 9 pages information. Patients tend to benefit when the professional takes into account their client's entire life and background. There are five types of schizophrenia: Catatonic, an appearance or mood that shows no emotion. Disorganized, which reflect bizarre motor behavior in which there is less reaction to the environment. Paranoid, refers to false beliefs or thoughts having nothing to do with reality. Residual, refers to hallucinations

Schizophrenia - 1037 words

1037 words - 5 pages patient, change of function before to after the illness was suspected, developmental background, genetics and family history with schizophrenia and other related disorders such as multiple personality disorder and response to antipsychotic medications. Because of schizophrenias complexity a mental illness even experts today are not sure on what causes it. Genetics does appear to play a role; people who have schizophrenia in their family are more

Related Essays

Background Of The Study Essay

1151 words - 5 pages INTRODUCTION Background of the Study It was in the 18th Century; an era of discoveries and creationism that had made developments for science and history. One of the developments include different kinds of application such as, shoe polish. A Shoe polish is a waxy paste, cream, or liquid us to polish, shine and waterproof leather shoes to extend the footwear’s life and restore, maintain and improve their appearance. Shoe polish helps the

Background Study Of Sex Workers Essay

3390 words - 14 pages INTRODUCTION Background of Study Prostitution is the performance of sexual acts for payment. It exists throughout the world, largely in urban areas. Some prostitutes work for themselves. Others work for men known as pimps or for woman called madams. Some prostitutes seek customers on streets and in other public places and this happen especially in developing countries where poverty is the main reason. (Shedlin, Michele G, World Book p.15

Developing The Background Of Study Essay

4677 words - 19 pages DEVELOPING THE BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY | | | |Birth is a crucial stage in the reproductive life of a woman. It is an affirmation of the life-giving | | |function of the human species and a celebration of life itself. Yet, it can be life-threatening when

An Investigation Into The Use Of Collaborative Learning Strategies To Foster Satisfactory Academic Performance In A Group Of Grade Six Students At A Primary School Background To Study

551 words - 3 pages Background to the StudyChange is unstoppable. We either adapt or fossilize. This is the fact that applies, whether we are talking about change in our private or public lives. Change not only affects social institutions, like the family, but the world of work and our interpersonal and economic lives as well. In our Jamaican society today, unlike many years ago, it is notable that the society throughout the years has changed and gradually