In the wake of the Civil War, Congress acceded to pressure to have the federal government intercede to secure African Americans' rights.
What were some of the long-range effects of that government posture?
The Union Victory in the Civil War in 1865 granted freedom to approximately 4 million slaves, however, the process of rebuilding the South during the Reconstruction period 1865-1877 brought a lot of challenges. In 1865 and 1866 under the supervision of President Andrew Johnson, new Southern state legislatives passed the “black codes” to control the labor and behavior of former slaves and other African Americans. During the Radical Reconstruction in 1869, new enfranchised blacks had ...view middle of the document...
When Johnson vetoed the bills, the Civil Rights Act became the first major bill to become law over presidential veto (Carlson et al …p. 265 – 268 ).
In 1866, after northern voters rejected Johnson’s policies in the congressional elections, Republicans in congress took control of the Reconstruction in the South. That same period, Congress passed a Reconstruction Act of 1867, which separated the South into five military districts. This law also required Southern states to ratify the 14th Amendment, which explained the definition of citizenship, giving “equal protection” of the Constitution to former slaves, before they came back to the Union. Also, in February 1869, Republicans proposed the Fifteenth Amendment, which assured that a citizen’s right to vote would not be denied because of “race, color, or previous condition of servitude.” (Carson, et al … p. 266).
Long Range Effects of Government Posture
Radical Reconstruction brought many gains to black Southerners like, schools, varied economic possibilities and franchise. In 1867, in New Orleans, African Americans won the right to ride the public trolley cars. In many southern states, Radical Republican governments passed laws granting black people access to “soda fountains, opera houses, railroads and steamboats.” However, after 1867, large number of southern whites started to fight in response to the revolutionary changes of Radical Reconstruction. The KKK and other white supremacist organizations targeted local Republican leaders, white and black and other African Americans who tried...