At Risk Identification
The image of the child with disability in India is many faceted. The perception, who is “disabled” and “who has the disability”, is influenced by the social context that the child lives in, and not necessarily by the nature and degree of child’s impairment. A child with a mild form of disability may face exclusion in her contact, while another one with severe form of disability may experience no discrimination. The reasons for such variability in response to disability, understandably, lie in the social, cultural, religious, economic, and demographic heterogeneity of the Indian society.
Factors affecting child’s development.
Child’s development ...view middle of the document...
A person with disability has a physical or intellectual impairment that limits the person in some major life activity.
Disability is not a personal tragedy for the affected individual, but as arising from social and ecological context of which he or she is a part.
Early detection and intervention
Early detection refers to early identification of disability, which makes it possible to provide the kinds of intervention that ‘at risk’, and children with disability need as early as possible.
Early Intervention (E.I.) refers to planned and organized efforts to enhance the development of children, who have a disability or are at a risk of developing it. E.I. focus on children from birth to 6 yrs of age.
• Providing appropriate stimulation i.e. providing opportunities to the child to explore the surroundings.
• Carrying out Individualized Educational Plan (I.E.P.)
• Support and guidance to the family
Importance of Early Intervention
• With appropriate stimulation and treatment during early years, most children with disability can learn to function at higher levels.
• About 80% of the brain development occurs in first 6 yrs of life, thus potential for learning is maximum during this period.
• There is plasticity of brain during first 2 days, so the effect of deprivation or enrichment provided during this period is long lasting.
• It helps in molding parental attitude in a positive manner so as to have them accept their child better.
➢ Types of disabilities
1) Intellectual Impairment
A disability characterized by significant limitation both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social and practical adaptive skills. The disability originates before 18 years (AAMR, 2002).
The intellectual abilities referred to in the definition include planning, solving problems, thinking abstractly, comprehending complex idea, learning quickly and learning from experience.
Adaptive behavior refers to as a collection of conceptual, social and practical skills that have been learned by people in order to function in their everyday lives.
The skill areas in each category have been listed below:
o Reading and writing
o Money concept
o Self direction
o Interpersonal skills
o Self esteem
o Follows rules
o Obeys laws
o Avoids victimization
Activities of daily living:
Instrumental activities for daily living
o Meal preparation
o Money management
o House keeping
o Take medication
o Telephone use
The term intellectual...