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Artificial Intelligence What Is Artificial Intelligence (A.I.)? Strong And Weak A.I. The Turing Test Branches Of A.I

521 words - 3 pages

The idea of the robot replacing the need for human intelligence is a startling thought. Could these machines develop beyond our control? This section explains what Artificial Intelligence is and the scientific skills involved.What is Artificial Intelligence (A.I.)?The term Artificial Intelligence was first coined by John McCarthy in 1956 when he proposed that "intelligence can in principle be so precisely described that a machine can be made to simulate it." He now defines A.I. as "the science and engineering of making intelligent machines, especially intelligent computer programs." A.I. is generally associated with Computer Science, but it has many important links with other ...view middle of the document...

I.. Weak A.I. simply states that some "thinking-like" features can be added to computers to make them more useful tools; that machines can simulate human cognition, in other words act as if they are intelligent. This has already started to happen, for example, speech recognition software.The Turing TestThe 'Turing Test' is an experiment suggested by mathematician Alan Turing in his 1950 paper Computing Machinery and Intelligence. He argued that if a machine could successfully pretend to be human to a knowledgeable observer, then you certainly should consider it intelligent. In the Turing test, a judge has conversations via teletype, with two systems, one human, the other a machine. The conversations can be about anything, and proceed for a set period of time. If, at the end of this time, the judge cannot distinguish the machine from the human on the basis of the conversation, then Turing argued that we would have to say that the machine was intelligent.Branches of A.I.There are many branches of Artificial Intelligence including:* Neural Networks - These are systems that attempt to simulate intelligence by reproducing the types of physical connections that occur in animal brains.* Natural Language Processing - This involves programming computers to understand natural human languages.* Robotics - This field attempts to robots to act intelligently. For example to see and hear and react to other sensory stimuli.* Game Playing -This involves programming computers to play games such as chess.* Expert systems - This is where computers are programmed to make decisions in real-life situations.

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