Approaches to counselling , skills and theories
Counselling can be defined in varies ways, However counselling involves a person (counsellor) helping another person (Client) to work through some difficult or painful time or facing relationship and behavioural problems. This can either be achieved through the profession of applying psychological theories or by giving the client the opportunity to explore and discover ways of living more resourcefully and towards greater well being (BAC 1991). Person centred counselling is when the counsellors allows the client to have full control of the process as they believe people have the potential to find their own solutions.
Counselling developed ...view middle of the document...
The super -ego represents the moral structures and ideas inculcated as a child from society.....and parents. ' (Spurling, 2004 p58)
Therefore Freud notes that feelings and behaviour linked into early stages of development is carried over into our adult life. He suggests that unsuccessful or partial negotiation of various stages in development might only cause psychological problems later in life but also determine the manner in which problems might represent themselves. According to Freud, the key to a healthy personality is a balance between the ID, the Ego and the Super Ego. If there is an imbalance the outcome is maladaptive personality .Unlike Freud, Jung his student placed more emphasis on the middle adulthood. He believes that at that stage the struggle now is between the consciousness and the unconsciousness and that what makes a person healthy was individualisation which usually takes part in the middle adulthood.
Meanwhile there are separate strands of psychological therapies which were developed under the influence of psychological and learning theory by B F Skinner. These theories reject the notion of the hidden aspects of the psyche varying sharply from the psychoanalysis who mainly believe individuals need to come to terms with their inner censor. Whereas these psychologists suggests the psyche cannot be examined empirically. They began to focus on what could be observed in the outside world. According to Skinner, human behaviour is a stimulus response which has three aspects to that. A behaviour that is rewarded tends to be repeated and the behaviour that is punishable is often regretted and is less likely to be repeated .Furthermore a behaviour that is neither rewarded or punished negates a particular kind of behaviour.
Skinner’s theory states the human personality is inborn but behaviour is learnt and is always in response to external stimuli and furthermore motivational behaviour leads to self-fulfilment through actualisation. It is also in line with Roger’s theory. Rogers was also influenced mainly by Abraham Maslow whose theory is based on the “hierarchy of needs”. He believes humans are motivated or derived by series of needs that exists from birth. In Maslow’s theory the hierarchy results in self actualization as a pinnacle of human expression when the psychological needs are met. However according to Maslow’s pyramid only a few people will actually achieve the self actualization.
Psychologist Dr Carl Rogers developed an approach to counselling which is now known as person centred counselling. He strongly believed that people are essentially trustworthy, have positive inner qualities and the potential for understanding themselves in order to resolve their own problems, issues and dilemmas. Consequently, the helper (counsellor) did not need to directly intervene or provide solution as the other person (client) has the ability to do so. Rogers developed this theory through working with emotionally troubled...