APPROACHES TO MANAGEMENT (SUMMARY)
1. CLASSICAL MANAGEMENT APPROACH
In response to complex problems, managers develop and test solutions focusing on finding efficient ways to perform and manage tasks, thus the classical approach of management.
1.1 Classical scientific
The approach studies in detail the best way to perform a job. Founder Frederick W Taylor attempted to systematise the way a job was done, which is now seen in many modern businesses.
1.2 Classical bureaucratic
This approach was pioneered by Max Weber and Henri Fayol, where bureaucracy was seen as the most efficient form of organisation.
Planning is preparing a predetermined course of action for a business.
A. Strategic plans, example whereby business alliances with accountants and solicitors increase the number of clients and increasing the business profile in the long term.
B. Tactical ...view middle of the document...
Controlling compares the intended occurrence and actual occurrence.
1. Establish standards according to business goals and input/regulations of employees, management , industry and government
2. Measure performance and determine how SCS can improve or continue to meet standards or benchmarks.
3. Corrective action by changing activities, processes and personnel to ensure that the goals of the business have been met and standards are maintained.
1.3 Leadership Styles
Manager leadership style is essentially their way of doing things in terms of behaviour and attitude. There are 4 leadership styles:
i) Autocratic or authoritarian where manager tells employees what and how to do tasks, no employee input.
ii) Democratic where the employees get some say in decisions that are made
iii) Collegial where management adopts an integrative role and establishes an environment of mutual contribution. For example employees are given authority to run the business in the manager’s absence.
iv) Laissez- Faire is where the manager only provides advice when it is asked for, it is effective with research as employees work in teams.
2. BEHAVIOURAL MANAGEMENT APPROACH
The behavioural approach was a theory of Elton Mayo, emphasises that employees should be the main focus of the business organisation and employee social needs’ significantly impact productivity.
i) Leading and management. Leading and managing are different a manager has intent to complete a job whereas a leader aims to empower.
ii) Management encourages employees to contribute to achieving businesses goals.
iii) Management as Communicating
iv) Teams, are vital in the modern workplace, especially in services, the amount of research required needs teams working together allowing efficiency and collaboration between members, permitting high quality solutions.
3. CONTINGENCY MANAGEMENT APPROACH
Contingency approach stresses need for flexibility and adaptation of management practices to suit changing circumstances.