APA style is a set of guidelines established by the American Psychological Association for presenting written research. See: The American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Copies of this manual are available at the LCC Library and are located on the 2nd (Ref BF 76.7 .P83 2010) and 3rd floor (BF 76.7 .P83 2010). Information is also available at: • www.lcc.edu/library/research-help/citation
BASIC FORMAT AUTHOR-DATE STYLE
In addition to having a references list at the end of your paper, you must give credit to ...view middle of the document...
Author’s name in reference
APA Manual 6.11 (p. 174) If you do not cite the author’s name in your paper, then include both the author’s last name and the publication year in parentheses at the end of the sentence separated by a comma:
Oliver, Chiras, and Reganold (2004) offer sustainable solutions to global resource and environmental problems. Oliver et al. argue that...
Silent Spring was one of the first books to discuss dangers of pesticide use (Carsen, 1962).
04 June 2010 • APA Style: In-Text Citation • Page 1 of 2 • Available online at: www.lcc.edu/library/help/citation
Citing six or more authors
APA Manual 6.12 (p. 175) Cite the last name of the first author followed by et al. and the publication date the first time you refer to a work and in each new paragraph. If you cite the work again in the same paragraph, do not include the year of publication.
Personal communications (interview, letter, email)
APA Manual 6.20 (p. 179) References to personal communications do not appear in the reference list. Personal communication references in text should provide the initials and last name of the person and the exact date of the communication.
Knight et al. (2002) found that college students have been exposed to alcohol before attending college. In the research study, Knight et al. focused on interviewing undergraduate students.
J. J. McKenzie (personal communication, August 30, 2002) confirmed that he was one of the unofficial organizers of the teachers’ strike. He confirmed that he was one of the unofficial organizers of the teachers’ strike (J. J. McKenzie, personal communication, August 30, 2002).
No author listed (cite by title)
APA Manual 6.15 (p. 176) When there is no author listed for a work, include the first few words of the title followed by the...