I. Chapter 20: Northern Eurasia
• Japanese Reunification
⁃ Internal/External military conflicts, political growth/strengthening, expanded commercial/cultural contacts
⁃ Daimyo: warlords during disunity; Samurai: army of warriors; shoguns: hereditary commander of army daimyo pledged to; warfare common and most successful Hideyoshi who invaded mainland and took over peninsula and Chinese province of Manchuria but withdrew after his death; Korea = China influence/Confucian state and printing press; Korea devastated by invasion as royals laid claim to taxable land so taxes fell but China = weakened Chinese garrisons allowing Manchu oppositions to consolidate, invade Korea compelling ...view middle of the document...
civil law and samurai values surrender to supremacy of laws
• B. The Later Ming and Early Qing Empires
⁃ Ming Empire: commercial development and golden age but followed by chaos until Qing from Manchuria took over; silver from Japan and Latin America into China and used as currency; Ming cities vibrant; Problems to downfall: natural disasters (climate change/disease) like Little Ice Age + rapid urban growth/business speculation + price inflation from silver flood + little or even negative interest in developing economy + issued paper money and promoted copper + corruption == strikes; Rural areas worse as didn't maintain strong growth and slowly assimilated new crops and economic depression/recurring epidemics kept rural population in check;
⁃ Insecure boundaries and Manchu stronger; Uprisings in SW which couldn't be quelled as military against Mongols/Manchu in north; to stop Japanese, Ming brought Manchu troops into international force which led to Chinese defenses weakening so Manchu could just roll right in; Rebel leader captured Beijing so Ming general invited Manchu leaders who started Qing Empire (Manchu small percent of population)
⁃ Chinese enthusiasm for trade grew more slowly (especially in imperial court) than Europe's interest in China; Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch limited access; Christian missionaries were more successful and some Jesuits syncretized Christianity with Chinese traditions, and gave Europe science/technology info
⁃ Kangxi: golden age; repaired infrastructure, lower taxes, rents, interest rates; foreign trade encouraged; economic incentives to settle in bad areas; horses, overland communication improved; intellectual prodigy; Qing wanted to consolidate northern frontiers as feared Russia-Mongol alliance and Russia wanted to protect resources so Treaty of Nerchinsk fixed border along Amur and regulated trade across it; brought Mongolia under Qing control; open to new ideas/technologies and welcomed Jesuits who became office holders, discussed issues with them; Jesuits compromised by tolerating Confucian ancestor worship causing conflict; Kangxi wrote to Rome and expelled missionaries who didn't sign his position supporting Jesuits; Jesuit presence declined and then persecuted Christians
⁃ Information exchange between Europe/China two way; Europe wanted Chinese products and intellectuals looked at Chinese political system
⁃ Qing controlled trade strictly, permitted only one market point for each foreign sector - European in Canton; Britain soon became China's lead trading partner - tea valuable commodity but gave silver not products to China, worrying Britain, and Canton system impeded commercial development of Britain in China; British worried about the deficit with China due to silver exportation and got angry over Qing restrictions on imported foreign goods; Macartney mission showed Britain interest in China and EIC's desire to revise trade system which failed along with other European countries'...