Summer Independent Study Packet
Directions: As you carefully read through chapters 1-7 in your Campbell Biology textbook, thoughtfully respond to each of the following questions. It is important that you actually read the chapters for review and understanding. Do not just look for answers to the questions provided. Review all diagrams provided. The majority of the material in these beginning chapters should be a review for you. If need be, focus on those areas which may seem less familiar. After reviewing this material independently during the summer, it is expected that you have a solid understanding of these basic concepts for the start of this course. Prepare any specific ...view middle of the document...
Explain the role of a hypothesis in scientific inquiry.
12. How was the case study on mimicry in snake populations a good example of scientific inquiry in action?
13. Experimental controls and repeatability are crucial to a well done investigation. Explain why.
14. Explain how a scientific theory is different from how people use the word “theory” colloquially.
15. Why is natural selection called a theory?
16. Why is evolution considered the core theme of biology?
17. How could natural selection have led to the evolution of adaptations such as the thick, water-conserving leaves of the mother-of-pearl plant on the cover of your textbook?
18. Explain why different approaches and diverse backgrounds among scientists are important.
Chapter 2: The Chemical Context of Life
1. Read about and review the following terms in the text of Chapter 2. Make sure that you understand them enough to explain them and relate them or more complex biological processes later. I would not suggest looking up generic definitions in a glossary.
matter element compound trace elements
atom proton neutron electron
atomic nucleus isotope radioactive isotope energy
potential energy electron shell valence electron valence shell
covalent bond molecule single bond double bond
electronegativity nonpolar polar ionic bond
ion cation anion salts
hydrogen bond chemical reaction reactant product
2. In humans, iron is a trace element required for the proper functioning of hemoglobin, the molecule that carries oxygen in red blood cells. What might be the effects of an iron deficiency?
3. Using Figure 2.13, explain how a water molecule is formed.
4. Write an equation that uses the products of photosynthesis as reactants and the reactants of photosynthesis as products. Add energy as another product. This new equation describes a process that occurs in your cells. Describe this equation in words. How does this equation relate to breathing?
5. The percentages of naturally occurring elements making up the human body (see Table 2.1) are similar to the percentages of these elements found in other organisms. How could you account for this similarity among organisms?
6. Female silkworm moths attract males by emitting chemical signals that spread through the air. A male hundreds of meters away can detect these molecules and fly toward their source. The sensory organs responsible for this behavior are visible comblike antennae. Each filament of an antenna is equipped with thousands of receptor cells that detect the sex attractant. Based on what you learned in this chapter, propose a hypothesis to account for the ability of the male moth to detect a specific molecule in the presence of many other molecules in the air. What predictions does your hypothesis make?
7. In what way does the need for iodine or...