Ap Bio Chapter 48 Answers Essay

2007 words - 9 pages

AP Biology Reading Guide
Fred and Theresa Holtzclaw

Chapter 48: Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling

Name _______________________ Period ___________

Chapter 48: Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling
Concept 48.1 Neuron organization and structure reflect function in information transfer

What is a neuron?


Neurons can be placed into three groups, based on their location and function.
Type of Neuron

Transmit information from a sense receptor to the brain or spinal cord

sensory neurons

Integrate information within brain or spinal cord; connect sensory and motor
neurons; located entirely within the CNS


Transmit information from the brain or ...view middle of the document...

Ions are not able to diffuse freely through the membrane, because they are charged and so
must pass through protein channels specific for each ion.

All cells have a membrane potential across their plasma membrane. What is the typical resting
potential of a neuron?
Because the attraction of opposite charges across the plasma membrane is a source of potential energy, this charge
difference, or voltage, is called the membrane potential. The membrane potential of a resting neuron – one that is not
sending a signal – is its resting potential and is typically between –60 and –80 mV.


On the sketch below, label the following: outside cell, inside cell. Show where the concentrations
of Na+ and K+ are highest.





10. How are the concentration gradients of Na+ and K+ maintained?
Concentration gradients of sodium and potassium are maintained by sodium-potassium pumps in the plasma membrane.
These ion pumps use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to actively transport Na+ out of the cell and K+ into the cell.

Concept 48.3 Action potentials are the signals conducted by axons


As you see in the figure above, in a resting neuron, the outside of the membrane is positively
charged relative to the inside of the membrane. If positively charged ions flow out, the difference
in charge between the two sides of the membrane becomes greater. What is the increase in the
magnitude of the membrane potential called? When gated potassium channels that are closed in a resting neuron are stimulated to open, the

membrane’s permeability
to K+ is increased. Net diffusion of K+ out of the neuron increases, shifting the membrane potential
toward EK
(equilibrium potential for potassium). This increase in the magnitude of the membrane potential,
called hyperpolarization,
makes the inside of the membrane more negative.

When a stimulus is applied, ion channels will open. If positively charged ions flow in, the
membrane is said to depolarize. If depolarization causes the membrane potential to drop to a
critical value, a wave of depolarization will follow. What is this critical value called?
Sometimes, the response to hyperpolarization or depolarization is simply a shift in the membrane potential. This shift,
called a graded potential, has a magnitude that varies with the strength of the stimulus, with a large stimulus causing a
greater change in the membrane potential.


What is the wave of depolarization called?
Action potentials arise because some of the ion channels in neurons are voltage-gated ion channels, opening or closing
when the membrane potential passes a particular level. If a depolarization opens voltage-gated sodium channels, the
resulting flow of Na+ into the neuron results in further depolarization.

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.


AP Biology Reading Guide
Fred and Theresa Holtzclaw

Chapter 48: Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling


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