Antibody Diversity Mechanism Essay

1223 words - 5 pages

A transposition- like mechanism can be used for other types of DNA rearrangement reactions. Such mechanism is responsible for assembly of gene fragments during development of the vertebrate immune system. Vertebrates have two specialized cells namely T- cells and B-cells that dedicated to recognize the invading organism. B cells produce antibodies that circulate in the bloodstream. T-cell produce cell surface- bound receptor protein called T-cell receptor. These classes of protein able to recognized great diverse invader molecule then starts a cascade event to destruct the invader.
Antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of variable region gene segments during the ...view middle of the document...

Human has 50 genes VH, 40 genes Vϰ and 40 genes Vλ (Albert et al., 2002).
Combinatorial joining of gene segments magnifies antibody diversity by random rearrangement of VJ and VDJ in somatic cells. 40 Vϰ and 5 Jϰ genes able to form 200ϰ chain combinations. 40 Vλ and 4 Jλ genes able to form 160λ chain combinations. 50 VH , 20 D and 6 JH genes approximately form 6,000 H chain combinations.
Junctional diversification during gene segment joining is the imprecise joining and random insertion. The recombination between V-J and V-D-J is not always perfect and if errors occur during recombination event, additional diversity occurs. The diversity generated by this mechanism is occurring in the third hypervariable region thus directly affecting combining site of the antibody. After the hairpin loop is opened, thr free DNA ends can be trimmed cause the loss of nucleotides from the free end. Pier, Lyczak and Wetzler (2004) believe that exonuclease activity is involved. Exonuclease activity is not only removed P-nucleotides that already added to gene but also nucleotides that were originally part of the immunoglobulin gene. Junctional diversity also has the potential to alter the reading frame of exon.
Any B cell has potential of combinatorial joining of possible light and heavy chains before transcribed. Thus dissimilar combinations of light and heavy chains within individual B cells add further diversity. Pier et al. (2004) stated that in human, the amount of potential diversity calculated is as follow.
H chain diversity: 38 to 46 IGHV genes, 23 to 27 IGHD genes and 6 IGHJ genes able to produce 5244 to 7452 possible H-chain variable-region combinations.
L-chain diversity: 30 to 44 IGKV genes, 5 IGKJ genes or 150 to 220 possible ϰ L-chain variable regions, 29 to 33 IGLV genes and 4 to 5 IGLJ genes, or 116 to l65 possible λ L-chain variable regions.
However, the total possible diversity is; low end, (5244 x 150) + (5244 x 116) = 1.39 x 106 HL combination while at high end, (7452 x 220) + (7452 x 165) = 2.87 x 106 HL combinations.
Somatic hypermutation (SHM) happen particularly in the place that codes for the second hypervariable region is within the V-region. The point mutation happens during secondary immune response. The individual nucleotides in VJ or VDJ units are replaced with alternative bases thus most likely altering the specificity of the encoded Ig (Generation of Ab Diversity, n.d.). According to Teng and Papavasiliou (2007) initiation of hypermutation process is by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) converts cytidine to uridine. When the two DNA strands of the immunoglobulin gene become temporarily...

Other Papers Like Antibody Diversity Mechanism

Holidays In Albania Essay

1636 words - 7 pages Have you ever thought about having exciting and incredibly cheap vacations? Albania might be the right choice. According to My Travel Guide, Albania is ranked the fourth among ten places worth visiting in Eastern Europe (“Top 10 Eastern European Destinations”). One can encounter three kinds of vacations in this Mediterranean country: winter, summer, and cultural. The ideal places to spend your winter vacations are the Albanian Alps. They are

A Heart Of Darkness Essay

1748 words - 7 pages In this short story, there are frequent significant subject and ideas that make the story, "A Heart of Darkness," by Joseph Conrad, and haunting novel. The main theme is absolute white power over the natives. The theme validates the corruption, and the dependence caused by the white people as they took over the Congo. White men were giving all the power; they had no self-control, and in the end they did not use wisely. The white men became

The Aspects Of Vulnerability Among The Exploited In Medical Research

2287 words - 10 pages Essentially, everyone is in some state of vulnerability. However, some of us are more susceptible to harm due to our vulnerabilities. The susceptible are the individuals with the greatest risk. These individuals risk the loss of their autonomy, and maybe even their lives. Vulnerable populations can be found in every subset of society. However, as previously mentioned, there are some vulnerable populations that are at an even greater risk than

The Hitchhiker’S Guide To The Galaxy

1171 words - 5 pages The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy As the human race makes life-changing discoveries, it is made apparent that there is always more to learn as the universe, instead of becoming familiar, is becoming absurd. The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy, written by Douglas Adams, as well as the 2005 film adaption, portrays absurdity to be an all-encompassing system in the universe. Through the introduction and attempt to understand lack of reason, the

The Ford Motor Company Wage Increase Of 1914 And The Theory Of Incentives And Efficiency Wages

1252 words - 6 pages ‘It’s not the employer who pays the wages. Employers only handle the money. It is the customer who pays the wages’ (Henry Ford, cited in Johnson and Weinstein 2004, p. 2). When the Ford Motor Company announced that it would more than double the wages of its workers in January 1914 to a ‘five-dollar day’ minimum, was this a contradiction to Henry Ford’s statement? If customers are actually the ultimate payers of wages, then more than

Historical Analysis Of The Economical Breakthroughs Of The Industrial Revolution

1396 words - 6 pages A Historical Analysis of the Economical Breakthroughs of the Industrial Revolution During the Industrial Revolution, many elements of society experienced huge breakthroughs that would change the way they functioned forever. Economics were definitely one of them. With many new inventions and many factories appearing, many, many, more resources were being created than ever before. Also, all of the revenue from these resources was being given to

Leadership Portrayed in Monologue from Shakespeare’s Henry V

1214 words - 5 pages Leadership is defined as a socially constructed process and which also affect organizational future outcomes. Leader is someone at high position who have overall duty for an organization, she or he decide what to do and the way how to achieve it. (Carter and Greer, 2013)The role of leader is extremely important for an organization, leader use their own power to influence the followers though many different ways such as motivation in order to

Cuba Civil Rights

1906 words - 8 pages Picture a country that has limits on how much you can make random government imprisonments and more what do you do. That is the situation for the eleven million seventy-five thousand two hundred forty-four people of Cuba since the takeover of Fidel Castro. The US is opposed to Castro taking control of Cuba. Castro managed to ease the United States nerves when he said that Cuba was against all forms of communism. According to Lana Wylie the Union

US Freight System

1273 words - 6 pages General Environment Each American requires the movement of approximately 40 tons of freight per year across the freight network. This includes everything from shirts to lawn mower to orange juice. • As the U.S. population expands, the U.S. freight system will be called upon to meet the demands of a larger population • Between 2010 and 2035, the system will experience a 22 percent increase in the total amount of tonnage it moves • By 2050, with

Democratic Peace Theory

1852 words - 8 pages Intro: US Presidents have made it a goal during their term(s) in office to establish a good relationship with foreign countries and even try to improve upon existing connections with our allies. Some believe it is to prevent conflicts between the countries while others dispute that it is a threat assessment by the United States to pick and choose their friends and enemies. Preventing conflict between two democracies or countries that practice

Booker T. Washington

1621 words - 7 pages “Success is to be measured not so much by the position that one has reached in life as by the obstacles which he has overcome” –Booker T. Washing. Booker Taliaferro Washington was born in Hale’s Ford, Virginia on April 5th, 1856 to Jane Burroughs and an unknown White man. Washington was married three times. His first wife was Fannie N. Smith from Malden, West Virginia. Booker and Fannie were married in the summer of 1882 and had one child

Related Essays

Is Aids Taking Over The World?

1265 words - 6 pages survive for decades, because of the affects of evolution. Their luck stems from inherited diversity, and they tend to carry certain forms of the receptor lock into which the HIV key fits so that the virus finds it hard to break into the cells.1 One person in six inherits an altered form of part of the defence mechanism. The onset of symptoms, for them, is delayed for a matter of years. But, an even more fortunate five- percent of humans has two

Freedom And Responsibility Essay

2141 words - 9 pages Built within the Constitution of the United States are specifically defined freedoms that are guaranteed to all citizens. Conversely, with every constitutional freedom there comes a corresponding responsibility. On September 25, 1789, the state legislature’s twelve proposed amendments were transmitted by congress, the first two dealing with congressional representation and congressional pay. The following numbers three through twelve were

Hate Crime Laws Essay

2348 words - 10 pages On June 7, 1998, 49-year-old James Byrd Jr. of Texas accepted a ride from three white men, who then beat him severely, urinated on him, chained him by his ankles to the back of their pick-up truck, dragged him for three miles into the countryside, and dumped his corpse in front of an African-American cemetery (Graczyk). A little over a year later, a jury sentenced ring leader John King to death by lethal injection (“Man Executed for Dragging

Rational Emotional Behavior Therapy Case Study Conceptualization And Treatment Plan

2140 words - 9 pages Rational Emotional Behavior Therapy Case Study of Sarah: A Conceptualization and Treatment Plan Rational emotive behavior therapy, REBT, was developed by Albert Ellis and holds the central belief that the events in our lives do not cause our disturbances but that they are instead caused by our view of the events (Murdock, 2009). Murdock (2009) states that “people are seen as responsible for their behavior” (p. 279) but, because they are