HIS141 World History
Dr. Cord Scott
November 15, 2013
During the growth of the ancient civilizations, ancient technology was the result from advances in engineering in ancient times. These advances in the history of technology stimulated societies to adopt new ways of living and governance. It was the growth of the ancient civilizations which produced the greatest advances in technology and engineering, advances which stimulated other societies to adopt new ways of living and governance. I will be discussing about the ancient technologies of Mesopotamian, India, China, Greek, and the Romans.
The peoples of Mesopotamia have been credited ...view middle of the document...
The Mesopotamians had formulas for figuring out the circumference and area for different geometric shapes like rectangles, circles, and triangles. Some evidence suggests that they even knew the Pythagorean TheoremÂ long before Pythagoras wrote it down. They may have even discovered the number for pi in figuring the circumference of a circle.Â According to the assyriologist Dalley, the earliest pump was the Archimedes screw, first used by Sennacherib, King of Assyria, for the water systems at the Hanging Gardens of Babylon and Nineveh in the 7th century BC. This attribution, however, is refuted by the historian of ancient water lifting devices Olseon in the same paper, who still credits, as well as most other scholars, Archimedes with the invention. For later medieval technologies developed in the Mesopotamian region, now known as Iraq, see Inventions in medieval Islam.
The history of science and technology in India dates back to pre modern times. The Indus Valley civilization yields evidence of hydrography, metrology, and sewage collection and disposal being practiced by its inhabitants. Among the fields of science pursued in India were Ayurveda, astronomy, and mathematics. However, the Indus Valley Civilization, situated in a resource rich area, is notable for its early application of city planning and sanitation technologies. Cites in the Indus Valley offer some of the first examples, of closed gutters, public baths, and communal granaries. The Takshashila University was an important seat of learning in the ancient world. It was the center of education for scholars from all over Asia. Many Greek, Persian and Chinese students studied here under great scholars including Kautilya, Panini, Jivaka, and Vishnu Sharma. Ancient India was also at the forefront of seafaring technology which is a panel found at Mohenjodaro, depicts a sailing craft. Ship construction is vividly described in the Yukti Kalpa Taru, an ancient Indian text on Shipbuilding. The Yukti Kalpa Taru, compiled by Bhoja Narapati is concerned with shipbuilding. The Yukti Kalpa Taru had been translated and published by Prof. Aufrecht in his Catalogue of Sanskrit Manuscripts. Indian construction and architecture, called 'Vaastu Shastra', suggests a thorough understanding or materials engineering, hydrology, and sanitation. Ancient Indian culture was also pioneering in its use of vegetable dyes, cultivating plants including indigo and cinnabar. Many of the dyes were used in art and sculpture. The use of perfumes demonstrates some knowledge of chemistry, particularly distillation and purification processes.
The history of science and technology in China show significant advances in science, technology, mathematics, and astronomy. The first recorded observations of comets, solar eclipses, and supernovae were made in China. Traditional Chinese medicine, acupuncture and herbal medicine were also practiced. The Four Great Inventions of China are: the compass, gunpowder, papermaking, and...