Instructions: This is an honors level course. Answer all questions fully using complete sentences. If you want full credit, please provide plenty of details.
1. How is the concept of homeostasis related to aging and disease? Provide examples to support your thinking.
To maintain homeostasis, the body is constantly changing. To do so, cells divide, reproduce, and shed. As they do this, they lose telomeres and the body ages. And, as the body ages, it becomes harder to maintain homeostasis because organs become naturally less efficient with age. If one factor goes out of balance it affects the whole body. For example, if the body receives too much water the kidneys may be overtaxed and unable to expel the excess fluid- causing swelling or edema. Or, if nominal negative feedback mechanisms in the cardiovascular system become overwhelmed, positive feedback mechanisms can take over and ...view middle of the document...
Therefore, the feedback loop is negative.
If the loop were positive, the control center would’ve kept demanding increasing responses from the effector to continue feeling discomfort- even once the thirst was dealt with.
3. Why would you have a hard time understanding physiology if you did not also understand anatomy?
Anatomy teaches where the parts of the body are. And, because Physiology is the study of what the parts of the body do, it’s advantageous to know where they are to understand why they do what they do.
For example, if one did not know that the thoracic cavity is between the lungs, it would not make sense to them why it functions to pump oxygenated blood through the body.
4. Describe the different body cavities.
The Thoracic cavity holds the lungs and the heart. It’s often broken down into two separate cavities for each lung and a pericardial cavity for the heart.
The Peritoneal cavity or abdominal cavity holds the intestines, liver, kidneys, pancreas, gall bladder, spleen, stomach, and other abdominal organs.
The Pelvic cavity contains the genital organs and the bladder.
The Cranial cavity holds the brain and spinal cord
5. Career Focus: What does a dental hygienist do and why would he/she need to know anatomy and physiology?
A dental hygienist provides preventive dental care. They clean teeth, provide sealings, root planning, educate the patient, and sometimes handle safe teeth bleaching procedures. The most common task for a dental hygienist is to administer local anesthesia to provide more time for the procedures that necessitate it.
It’s imperative that dental hygienists understand the structure of the mouth and how it affects the function of the rest of the body. In order to educate the patients on how to properly care for the health of their mouths, they must be knowledgeable of the structure of the mouth and the function of its parts. Before they can take specialized courses for the dental hygiene field, they must make high grades in generalized mathematics courses along with anatomy and physiology. Before they can even be licensed to be dental hygienists, they need to pass the class.
Source: Modified from Essentials of Human A&P