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An Investigation Into The Use Of Cooperative Learning Strategies To Foster Positive Social Behaviour And Satisfactory Academic Performance In Physical Education Among A Group Of Grade Nine Students. Literature Review

1468 words - 6 pages

Literature Review

Literature Review

In the Elementary School Journal, 1987, Volume 88, no. 1 pp 21-22, Cooperative Learning is referred to as a " set of instructional methods in which students are encouraged or required to work together in heterogeneous groups on a given tasks." Cooperative learning methods may be simple as having students sit together to discuss or help each other with classroom tasks. Students placed in mixed ability groups will be able to learn from each other by sharing ideas and if one student does not understand something another student would explain it to him/ her. Of critical importance are the stronger students assisting the weaker ones, thus ...view middle of the document...

A social attitude is relatively enduring system of feelings, beliefs. And behaviours with respect to a social object. If a student therefore has ill feeling about another student it is more than likely that he/she will display some form of negativism, possibly verbally or physically. These behaviour must be discouraged through the effective use of cooperative learning that seeks to encourage students to work together in unison and eliminate undesirable social behaviours.

Attitudes may be formed or altered through the process of associative learning (Staats and Staats 1958). Our responsiveness to other human beings is perhaps the most obvious aspects of human experience. Learning together in teams provides an important incentive that motivates students to learn and develop social training skills to compete with the society and the world at large.

Positive interdependence, individual accountability, face-to- face positive interaction, social and communicative skills and group processing emanate from cooperative learning. These elements of Cooperative learning can be applied in many varied teaching and learning situations especially in the subject the subject Physical Education which permits much cooperation, tolerance, patience, love and respect among fellow students. Cooperative Learning affords students with the opportunity of interacting positively on a social basis with their peers by listening, speaking and appreciating each other's opinion.

Because students are inescapable social beings, so much, which it is difficult to live in isolation from their peers it becomes necessary that the psychosocial environment is one that creates a positive atmosphere. Cooperative Learning provides opportunities for students to engage in the same sort of teamwork, communication, effective coordination and division of labour, which develops good social behaviours and characterizes most real-life situations.

Barbara Gruber (1993) states that, " cooperative learning benefits individual students because it allows them to develop necessary social skills, a tolerance for the ideas and views of others, and can boost academic achievement. It fosters peer support and team spirit." Many students behave inappropriately in the classroom they lack the appropriate social skills. Social skills may be divided into two categories, namely task related or person related. Task related skills deals with behaviours such as attending, displaying, task persistence and complying with thrashers requests. Persons related skills include helping and sharing and greeting others and moderating one's aggressive behaviour. Person related skill are sadly lacking in our school environs, However, with the implementation and utilization of cooperative learning as often as possible at every given opportunity, personal related skills...

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