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Amphidromous Fish Demographic Pattern Essay

1452 words - 6 pages

Over evolutionary time periods the amphidromous biota of fish have suffered consequences as well as breaks in connectivity. This migrating species of fish has been subject to vicariant events as well as dispersal events that have now shaped their current distribution and connectivity patterns. The amphidromous gobies of the Sicydiinae are the main topic of study for this article, as their distribution processes are still widely unknown. Whether this may be due to present day movement of their larval marine phase or past evolutionary vicariant events, their genetic makeup is used to theorize on their movement patterns. Our paper will take the specific direction of addressing the following ...view middle of the document...

Yet, little is known about their genetic structure, especially when looking at the amphidromous species located in this central west pacific region of the world. Many key concepts are approached in this study but, for our purposes we will only be focusing on their demographic patterns and whether the barrier affects their dispersal.
Sicydiinae of three species were sampled across the range studied in various locations. Two main species were studied, the Sicyopus zosterophorum, which is widely distributed across the central west pacific bioregion, the Smilosicyopus fehlmanni, which has nearly the same distribution, and Smilosicyopus chloe, which was included as the control for the study. A tissue sample was taken from each fish and analyzed in various ways. To analyse demography of divergent population dates and effective biogeographic barriers, gene regions were amplified and sequenced and mitochondrial COI, Cytb, and nuclear Rhodospine genes were analyzed. Gene divergence time was used to test the hypothesis of vicariance, this would predict that divergence time between taxa on either side should coincide or precede the original timing of the barrier. After further analyzing, calculations were made and results were produced.
(Arsal Khan) In order to assess the level of intraspecific variation in Si. zosterophorum and whether or not the two sample groups from this population are cryptic species, the genetic distance between the two subset populations was compared with the genetic distance between two congeneric species (Smilosicyopus fehlmanni and Smilosicyopus chloe) with overlapping habitats. The latter species, Smilosicyopus chloe ,was included as a control group. Si. zosterophorum comprised the majority of the sample collection (N=165), followed by Sm. chloe (N=44), and Sm. fehlmanni (N=21). Si. Zosterophorum samples were taken from the northwest (Japan, Philippines, Palau, Papua, Indonesia) and the southwest (New Caledonia, Vanuatu Fiji) regions in order to capture the full range of the species distribution on either side of the Torres Strait, which acts as a land barrier between the two populations.

Intraspecific genetic diversity was assessed for Si. zosterophorum and Sm. fehlmanni, as well as any other population with over five individuals, by amplifying the cytochrome oxidase (COI) gene via polymerase chain reaction. The results indicate that there is in fact a genetic break between the two populations of Si. zosterophorum on either side of the Torres Strait. Pairwise genetic distances between groups peaked at 0.6 (within populations) and 2.0% (between populations) respectively, indicating a bimodal distribution. Median-joining network analysis revealed two distinct clusters (separated by seven nucleotide substitutions at minimum) of 31 haplotypes in the northwest region and 43 haplotypes in the southwest, further highlighting the distinction between both populations.

Hierarchical analyses of molecular variance (AMOVA) were...

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