AMERICAN HISTORY POST CIVIL WAR
American History Post Civil War Test 2
Growth Of Education In The United States In Nineteen Century
Education in the United States has faced great changes toward development in the past hundreds of years. A society that was coming to depend increasingly on specialized skills and scientific knowledge was, of course a society with a high demand for education. The late nineteenth century, therefore, was a time of rapid expansion and reform of American school and universities. One example was the spread of free public primary and secondary education. In 1860, there were only 100 public high schools in the entire United States. By 1900, the number had ...view middle of the document...
(References page 525 and 646). I remember one of Thomas Hurley quote “The most valuable result of all education, is to make you do the things you have to do, when it ought to be done, whether you like it or not. It is the first lesson that ought to be learned, and however early a man’s training begins, it is probably the last lesson he learns thoroughly”.
Discuss The Growth Of Organized Labor and Conflicts With Business Owners.
American industrial workers experienced both the successes and the failure of the 1920s as much as any other group. On the one hand, most workers saw their standard of living rise during the decade; many enjoyed greatly improved working conditions and other benefits. Some employers in the 1920s, eager to avoid disruptive labor unrest and the growth of independent trade unions, adopted paternalistic techniques that came to be known as “welfare capitalism.” Henry Ford, for example, shortened the work-week, raised wages, and instituted paid vacations. U.S. Steel made conspicuous efforts to improve safety and sanitation in is factories. When labor grievances surfaced despite these efforts, workers could voice them through the so-called company unions that were emerging in many industries. These were workers’ councils and shop committees, organized by the corporations themselves and thus without the independence most unions demands. (Reference page 635)
As long as corporations had continued to expand their capital facilities, the economy had flourished. By 1929, however, capital investment had created more plant space than could profitably be used, and factories were producing more goods than consumers could purchase. Industries that were experiencing declining demand began laying off workers, depleting mass purchasing power further.
Over 4,000 corporate mergers too place in the 1950s and more than ever before, a relatively small number large scale organizations controlled an enormous proportion of the nation’s economic activity. However, as early as 1948, Walter Reuther, president of the United Automobile Workers, obtained a contract from General Motors that included a built-in “escalator clause”. In 1955, Reuther received a guarantee from Ford Motor Company of continuing wages to auto workers even during layoff. By the early 1950s, large labor unions had developed a new kind of relationship with employers, a relationship sometimes known as the “postwar contract. Workers in steel, automobiles and other large unionized industries were receiving generous increases in wages and benefits; in return, the unions tacitly agreed to refrain from raising other issues. The economic successes of the 1950s helped pave the way for reunification of the labor movement. (References 635, 661 and 780)
What Changed The Thinking And The Role For The Enhanced Role In Foreign Affairs?
American foreign policy in the years after World War I attempted something that ultimately proved impossible. The United States was determined to...