Amedeo Avogadro Essay

1354 words - 6 pages

Amedeo Carlo Avogadro was born August 9, 1776, but he wasn’t born with this name, his name at birth was actually Lorenzo Romano Amedeo Carlo Avogadro. His father, Filippo Avogadro and mother, Anna Maria Vercellone were happy to bore someone else to go into law just like themselves. He was born in Turin, Italy into a family of renowned lawyers (The Piedmont Family). Avogadro is most well-known and distinguished for his assistance to molecular theory, along with what is known as Avogadro's law. He graduated in ecclesiastical law at the early age of 20. Soon after, he devoted himself and all of his free time to physics and mathematics (then called positive philosophy). In 1809, he started ...view middle of the document...

This was Avogadro's law (sometimes referred to as Avogadro's hypothesis or Avogadro's principle. Although his family pushed him to go into law, he turned to mathematics and physics later in his career because he was a man of himself and followed what he liked rather than what his family wanted him to do with his own future. He mathematically calculated that the same volume of any gas would have the same number of molecules at the same temperature and pressure. Although he did accomplish many things on his own, he contributed to building on the work of French chemist Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac (1778-1850) who is known mostly for two laws related to gases, and for his work on alcohol-water mixtures, which led to the degrees Gay-Lussac used to measure alcoholic beverages in many countries. Avagadro was able to conquer and overpower the complicatedness that Dalton and others had encountered when Gay-Lussac reported that above 100oC the volume of water vapor was twice the volume of the oxygen used to form it. According to Avogadro, the molecule of oxygen had split into two atoms in the course of forming water vapor. Avogadro's hypothesis was ignored for half a century after it was first published. Some of the reasons for this were theoretical problems, such as Jöns Jakob Berzelius's "dualism," which stated that compounds are held together by the attraction of positive and negative electrical charges, making it inconceivable that a molecule composed of two electrically similar atoms, as in oxygen, could exist. He submitted his first paper with his brother, Felice, on electricity to the Academy of Sciences in Turin in 1803. In 1804, he was elected a corresponding member of that body.
In admiration of Avogadro's assistance to molecular theory, the number of molecules in one mole was named Avogadro's number, NA or "Avogadro's constant". It is approximately 6.0221415 × 1023. Avogadro's number is used to calculate the results of chemical reactions. It allows chemists to conclude the exact amounts of substances created in a given reaction. Johann Josef Loschmidt first calculated the value of Avogadro's number, often referred to as the Loschmidt number in German-speaking countries (Loschmidt constant now has another meaning).
In 1787 Avogadro inherited his father's title as Count of Quaregna. In 1815, he published Mémoire sur les masses relatives des molécules des corps simples, ou densités présumées de leur gaz, et sur la constitution de quelques-uns de leur composés, pour servir de suite à l'Essai sur le même sujet, publié dans le Journal de Physique, juillet 1811 ("Note on the Relative Masses of Elementary Molecules, or Suggested Densities of Their Gases, and on the Constituents of Some of Their Compounds, As a Follow-up to the Essay on the Same Subject, Published in the Journal of Physics, July 1811") ([1]), about gas densities, In 1821 he published another paper, Nouvelles considérations sur la théorie des proportions déterminées dans...

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