Altered Phys Essay

5240 words - 21 pages

Altered Phys. Notes
Lecture 1: (September 17, 2015)
What does physiology mean?
* Normal function of a living thing, human cell, tissue, organ , system
What is Pathophysiology?
* Abnormal function caused by an adverse event/stimulus
* The event can be mechanical/chemical/radiation/etc.
* It has a negative impact on function
How relevant is A&P to Patho?
* Pretty relevant
* You know when something is wrong with the human body if you know how it functions when its healthy
* You need to know what’s normal to appreciate what’s different
Cell and tissue biology
* If you can understand what is happening in a cell, you can see what is happening in a tissue, ...view middle of the document...

Difference b/w Physiologic and Pathologic Atrophy:
* Phys: occurs with early development, normal part of life cycle
* Path: due to decrease in workload, pressure, use, blood supply
* Cause is different, effect is same
* Uncontrolled Diabetes, your circulation gets slowed down, so a person with too much glucose has capillaries that are glycosylated which means there’s a thick barrier, so amount of nutrient reaching the tissue is decreased leads to loss in organs
Hypertrophy
* Increase in cell size leads to increase in organ size eg. Working out gives you bigger muscles
* Different causes:
* Mechanical signals: lifting heavy weight increases muscle size (increased workload, stretch)
* Trophic signals: due to signal factors, hormones, vasoactive agents, (uterus in pregnancy)
Number of cells stay the same, some organs can’t increase in cell number, so cell’s volume increase
* Cardiac hypotrophy:
* Working a lot harder to get the same result
* Heart becomes tired, needs more energy to do the work since cell is larger
* When the aortic valve is narrowed
* Heart becomes bigger
* Cells in a hypertrophic heart are much bigger than normal heart, because heart needs to exert more force thus making it (stronger) = more blood needed to function = less blood inside the heart
Hyperplasia
* Increase in number of cells, due to increase rate of cellular division
* Hyperplasia usually occurs with hypertrophy
Cells that cannot enlarge, multiply to do the work
* Compensatory
* For adaption
* Eg. Callous formation in skin due to excessive guitar playing
* Hormonal
* In response to estrogen
* Hyperplasia in prostate, enlarges prostate, which presses on the urethra, which causes increase urinary pressure = bladder increases in size due to hyperplasia/trophy
* Toxic waste products can accumulate and cause different problems
Metaplasia
* Reversible replacement of 1 type of mature cell with often a less differentiated cell
* In metaplasia, the replacement cell is less functional than the original cells
* They’re not cancer cells, just different
* Eg. Smokers, normal stratified columnar cell gets replaced with
* Goblet cells produce mucus
* Epithelial cells move things around
Dysplasia
* Uncontrollable abnormal growth
* No cleanup service, even cells that are half made are kept
* Nucleus are different sizes and cells are different shape no function due to irregular shape
* Atypical hyperplasia: results in uncontrolled growth of non-functional cells
Linked to neoplastic growth, and is found next to cancer cells
Free Radicals and ROS (reactive oxygen species)
* Electrically uncharged atom or group of atoms having an unpaired electron which can damage cell
DAMAGE MECHANISM by FREE RADICALS and ROS
* Lipid peroxidation – destruction of polyunsaturated lipids, causing membrane damage
...

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