Dementia is not a specific disease. It is a descriptive term for a collection of symptoms that can be caused by a number of disorders that affect the brain. People with dementia have significantly impaired intellectual functioning that interferes with normal activities and relationships. They also lose their ability to solve problems and maintain emotional control, and they may experience personality changes and behavioral problems such as agitation, delusions, and hallucinations.
1. Spend time with the Patient
2. Use touch to convey concern
3. Provide frequent reiteration of orienting data (e.g. time, place)
4. Have clocks or ...view middle of the document...
They can cause loss of calcium from the body.
5. Make the home safe to avoid accidents.
6. Practice good posture.
4. Use good body mechanics when lifting objects (e.g. bend the knees instead of the back).
5. Do back exercises to improve posture.
6. Wear rubber-soled, low-heeled shoes that grip well.
7. Don’t lift heavy objects.
8. Avoid using a stool or bending over.
9. Put items frequently used within easy reach.
10. Use handrails when going up and down stairs.
11. Hormonal Replacement Therapy (HRT) for menopausal women as prescribed.
Postural Hypotension (PH)
A drop in blood pressure (hypotension) due to a change in body position (posture) when a person moves to a more vertical position: from sitting to standing or from lying down to sitting or standing.
1. Get out of bed slowly and in stages.
2. Sleep with head of bed elevated several inches.
3. Have a daily fluid intake of 2 to 3 liters.
4. Avoid hot showers or baths, may cause venous dilatation thereby, venous pooling.
5. Avoid straining at stool. This may cause fall of BP
6. Avoid bending down and suddenly standing up again.
7. Rest for 60 minutes after meals.
8. Avoid hyperventilation. This lowers the BP.
9. Exercise regimen must be recommended.
10. Use thigh-length elastic stockings to reduce venous pooling.
11. Avoid prolonged standing.
12. Heed warning signs of PH (e.g., dizziness, faintness, visual disturbances)
13. Pharmacotherapy: Fludrocortisone (a mineralocorticoid that promotes retention of water and sodium)
is a cardiac chronic medical condition in which the systemic arterial blood pressure is elevated.
1. Encourage stress reduction and relaxation.
2. Encourage exercise such as swimming and walking.
3. Encourage healthy diet (fresh fruits, rice, vegetable).
4. No weightlifting.
5. Quit smoking, no alcohol,
6. Reduce intake of saturated fats.
7. Reduce salt intake to 1 to 6 gm per day.
8. Take prescribed medications at regular basis.
a single, or repeated act, or lack of appropriate action, occurring within any relationship where there is an expectation of trust which causes harm or distress to an older person.
There are many types of abuse used against the elderly. They include:
1. Psychologic abuse such as instilling fear, threatening or making the elderly perform demeaning tasks,
2. Physical abuse such as hitting, slapping, or burning.
3. Financial abuse such as taking their money or forcing them to sign over their assets.
4. Neglect such as withholding food, medications or basic care.
5. Infringement of personal rights such as restraining for long periods of time against their will or isolating them from normal social interactions.
6. Sexual abuse
7. The perpetrator of abuse is usually the spouse or the children of the victim. Caregivers who abuse their elderly family members are often middle-aged or older or have emotional problems such as alcoholism or substance...