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Albert Einsteins Relativitätstheorie Essay

1455 words - 6 pages

Bertuğ DİLMAN 11-D


-Albert Einstein
-Relativitätstheorie in einem Diagramm
-Vergangenheit,Gegenwart und Zukunft

Albert Einstein

Die wichtigsten Punkte von seinem Leben

Er begründete mit der Entwicklung der Speziellen (1905) und der Allgemeinen (1915) Relativitätstheorie ein neues physikalisches Weltbild. Die Relativitätstheorie bringt Raum und Zeit in Zusammenhang mit der Gravitation und besagt, dass die Zeit in verschiedenen Initialsystemen keine konstante Größe ist. Den Nobelpreis für Physik 1921 erhielt Albert Einstein allerdings nicht für diese bahnbrechende Erkenntnis, sondern für seine ...view middle of the document...

Wie stark die wahrgenomme Länge verkürzt ist, hängt von der Geschwindigkeit des Beobachters ab. Je höher die Geschwindigkeit ist, desto größer ist die Längenkontraktion.

Die Theorie zeigt, dass auch viele weitere Größen keinen absoluten Charakter besitzen, sondern sich ändern, wenn sich der Bewegungszustand des Beobachters ändert. Zu diesen Größen zählen zum Beispiel die Kraft, die elektrische Feldstärke und die Masse eines Körpers. Weil viele physikalische Größen nach der Theorie keinen absoluten, sondern einen relativen Charakter haben, spricht man von der Relativitätstheorie.

Das "spezielle" an der Theorie besteht darin, dass sie nur in Abwesenheit von Gravitationsfeldern gilt. Treten Gravitationsfelder auf, muss die sogenannte Allgemeine Relativitätstheorie (ART) verwendet werden, die auf der SRT aufbaut, aber mathematisch sehr viel anspruchsvoller ist.

Einstein selbst formulierte das Relativitätsprinzip damals so:
"Die Gesetze, nach denen sich die Zustände der physikalischen Systeme ändern, sind unabhängig davon, auf welches von zwei relativ zueinander in gleichförmiger Translationsbewegung befindlichen Koordinatensystemen diese Zustandsänderungen bezogen werden."

Etwas einfacher kann man sagen:
In jedem unbeschleunigten Laborraum gelten dieselben Naturgesetze.


Bei der Zeitdilatation (Dilatation bedeutet ausbreiten) handelt es sich um ein Phänomen der Relativitätstheorie. Befindet sich ein Beobachter im Zustand der gleichförmigen Bewegung geht nach der speziellen Relativitätstheorie jede relativ zu ihm bewegte Uhr aus seiner Sicht langsamer. Diesem Phänomen unterliegen allerdings nicht nur Uhren, sondern die Zeit im bewegten System selbst und damit jeder beliebige Vorgang. Die Zeitdilatation ist umso stärker, je größer die Relativgeschwindigkeit der Uhr ist. Um dieses Phänomen zu beobachten, braucht man natürlich Geschwindigkeit näher zur Lichtgeschwindigkeit.


Für eine einfache Erklärung dieses Faktors kann das Konzept der Lichtuhr herangezogen werden. Eine Lichtuhr besteht aus zwei Spiegeln im Abstand d, die einen kurzen Lichtblitz hin und her reflektieren. Dieses Gedankenexperiment wurde erstmals 1909 von Gilbert Newton Lewis und Richard C. Tolman besprochen

Die Wegstrecke vom unteren bis zum oberen Spiegel ist jedoch für das Photon der bewegten Lichtuhr länger als für das der ruhenden Lichtuhr, und daher entsteht eine größere Zeitspanne, bis es vom einen zum anderen Spiegel gelangt.

Die bewegte Lichtuhr hat eine längere Periodendauer als die ruhende. Das bedeutet, dass der Vorgang, wenn er von einem bewegten System aus beobachtet wird, langsamer ist als im Ruhsystem der Lichtuhr.

Man kann die Zeitdilatation mit den Worten "Bewegte Uhren gehen langsamer" zusammenfassen.

Betrachten wir die Bewegung des Photons vom unteren bis zum oberen Spiegel. Alle Längen, die in dieser Situation auftreten, sind in der folgenden Abbildung angegeben:

Die Dauer des Prozesses...

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